, Volume 240, Issue 3, pp 585–598 | Cite as

Subcellular distribution of central carbohydrate metabolism pathways in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae

  • Takashi Moriyama
  • Kenta Sakurai
  • Kohsuke Sekine
  • Naoki Sato
Original Article


Main conclusion

Comprehensive subcellular localization analysis revealed that the subcellular distribution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon is essentially identical with that in Arabidopsis , except the lack of transaldolase.

In plants, the glycolysis and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways (oxPPP) are located in both cytosol and plastids. However, in algae, particularly red algae, the subcellular localization of enzymes involved in carbon metabolism is unclear. Here, we identified and examined the localization of enzymes related to glycolysis, oxPPP, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) and Calvin–Benson cycles in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. A gene encoding transaldolase of the oxPPP was not found in the C. merolae genome, and no transaldolase activity was detected in cellular extracts. The subcellular localization of 65 carbon metabolic enzymes tagged with green fluorescent protein or hemagglutinin was examined in C. merolae cells. As expected, TCA and Calvin–Benson cycle enzymes were localized to mitochondria and plastids, respectively. The analyses also revealed that the cytosol contains the entire glycolytic pathway and partial oxPPP, whereas the plastid contains a partial glycolytic pathway and complete oxPPP, with the exception of transaldolase. Together, these results suggest that the subcellular distribution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways in C. merolae is essentially identical with that reported in the photosynthetic tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana; however, it appears that substrates typically utilized by transaldolase are consumed by glycolytic enzymes in the plastidic oxPPP of C. merolae.


Glycolysis Oxidative pentose phosphate pathway Tricarboxylic acid cycle Calvin–Benson cycle Subcellular localization Red algae 



The authors thank Dr. H. Yoshikawa and Dr. S. Watanabe of the Tokyo University of Agriculture for providing pCG1 plasmid, and also thank Dr. M. Ohnuma and T. Kuroiwa of Rikkyo University for providing plasmid pBSHAb-T3′. This work was supported in part by Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) from the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), and Grants-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) from JSPS (No. 25870155).

Supplementary material

425_2014_2108_MOESM1_ESM.doc (6.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 6485 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takashi Moriyama
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kenta Sakurai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kohsuke Sekine
    • 2
    • 3
  • Naoki Sato
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.JST, CRESTTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Division of Life Sciences, Komaba Organization for Educational Excellence, College of Arts and SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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