, Volume 237, Issue 2, pp 637–651 | Cite as

Proteomic analysis of the Cyanophora paradoxa muroplast provides clues on early events in plastid endosymbiosis

  • Fabio Facchinelli
  • Mathias Pribil
  • Ulrike Oster
  • Nina J. Ebert
  • Debashish Bhattacharya
  • Dario Leister
  • Andreas P. M. WeberEmail author
Original Article


Glaucophytes represent the first lineage of photosynthetic eukaryotes of primary endosymbiotic origin that diverged after plastid establishment. The muroplast of Cyanophora paradoxa represents a primitive plastid that resembles its cyanobacterial ancestor in pigment composition and the presence of a peptidoglycan wall. To attain insights into the evolutionary history of cyanobiont integration and plastid development, it would thus be highly desirable to obtain knowledge on the composition of the glaucophyte plastid proteome. Here, we provide the first proteomic analysis of the muroplast of C. paradoxa. Mass spectrometric analysis of the muroplast proteome identified 510 proteins with high confidence. The protein repertoire of the muroplast revealed novel paths for reduced carbon flow and export to the cytosol through a sugar phosphate transporter of chlamydial origin. We propose that C. paradoxa possesses a primordial plastid mirroring the situation in the early protoalga.


Endosymbiosis Evolution Plastid Proteomics Transporters 



Mass spectrometry


Endosymbiotic gene transfer


Translocon of the outer chloroplast membrane/translocon of the inner chloroplast membrane


Phosphate translocators


Nucleotide-sugar transporter


Nucleoside triphosphate transporter



Work in the authors’ laboratories was supported by grants of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (CRC TR1, projects B9 and C12). Additionally, we acknowledge Youlia Davidova for MS analysis.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (JPEG 446kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (JPEG 4.15mb)
425_2012_1819_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (432 kb)
Table S1 Protein identification for each sample and replicate (PDF 431 kb)
425_2012_1819_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (673 kb)
Table S2 Summary of the protein identifications with annotations based on blast2GO, TAIR and KEGG. For each protein identified the sequence, the number of predicted transmembrane domains (Tusnady and Simon 1998) and the number of assigned spectra for each replicate are indicated (PDF 672 kb)
425_2012_1819_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (650 kb)
Table S3 Subcellular localization prediction of the identified proteins by AtSubP (PDF 649 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabio Facchinelli
    • 1
  • Mathias Pribil
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ulrike Oster
    • 3
  • Nina J. Ebert
    • 1
  • Debashish Bhattacharya
    • 4
  • Dario Leister
    • 2
  • Andreas P. M. Weber
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences (CEPLAS)Heinrich-Heine-UniversityDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Lehrstuhl für Botanik, Department Biologie ILudwig-Maximilians-UniversitätPlanegg-MartinsriedGermany
  3. 3.Mass Spectrometry Unit, Department Biologie ILudwig-Maximilians-UniversitätPlanegg-MartinsriedGermany
  4. 4.Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources and Institute of Marine and Coastal SciencesRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

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