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Planta

, Volume 236, Issue 3, pp 887–900 | Cite as

AtGSNOR1 function is required for multiple developmental programs in Arabidopsis

  • Eunjung Kwon
  • Angela Feechan
  • Byung-Wook Yun
  • Byung-Ho Hwang
  • Jacqueline A. Pallas
  • Jeong-Gu Kang
  • Gary J. LoakeEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to regulate a diverse array of activities during plant growth, development and immune function. S-nitrosylation, the addition of an NO moiety to a reactive cysteine thiol, to form an S-nitrosothiol (SNO), is emerging as a prototypic redox-based post-translational modification. An ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE (GSNO) REDUCTASE (AtGSNOR1) is thought to be the major regulator of total cellular SNO levels in this plant species. Here, we report on the impact of loss- and gain-of-function mutations in AtGSNOR1 upon plant growth and development. Loss of AtGSNOR1 function in atgsnor1-3 plants increased the number of initiated higher order axillary shoots that remain active, resulting in a loss of apical dominance relative to wild type. In addition atgsnor1-3 affected leaf shape, germination, 2,4-D sensitivity and reduced hypocotyl elongation in both light and dark grown seedlings. Silique size and seed production were also decreased in atgsnor1-3 plants and the latter was reduced in atgsnor1-1 plants, which overexpress AtGSNOR1. Overexpression of AtGSNOR1 slightly delayed flowering time in both long and short days, whereas atgsnor1-3 showed early flowering compared to wild type. In the atgsnor1-3 line, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) expression was reduced, whereas transcription of CONSTANS (CO) was enhanced. Therefore, AtGSNOR1 may negatively regulate the autonomous and photoperiod flowering time pathways. Both overexpression and loss of AtGSNOR1 function also reduced primary root growth, while root hair development was increased in atgsnor1-1 and reduced in atgsnor1-3 plants. Collectively, our findings imply that AtGSNOR1 controls multiple genetic networks integral to plant growth and development.

Keywords

Nitric oxide S-nitrosylation AtGSNOR1 S-nitrosothiols Plant development 

Abbreviations

NO

Nitric oxide

SNO

S-nitrosothiol

GSNOR1

S-nitrosoglutathione reductase

FLC

Flowering locus C

CO

Constans

LFY

LEAFY

GA

Gibberellic acid

SA

Salicylic acid

2,4-D

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

Notes

Acknowledgments

AF was the recipient of a BBSRC CASE studentship. EK and BW were funded by BBSRC grant BB/D0118091/1 to the Loake lab. BW was supported by a grant from the Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program (SSAC, grant# : PJ009011), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea. JK was the recipient of a Staff Scholarship from the University of Edinburgh.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eunjung Kwon
    • 1
  • Angela Feechan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Byung-Wook Yun
    • 1
    • 3
  • Byung-Ho Hwang
    • 1
  • Jacqueline A. Pallas
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jeong-Gu Kang
    • 1
  • Gary J. Loake
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  2. 2.CSIRO Plant IndustryGlen OsmondAustralia
  3. 3.School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea
  4. 4.Trait Research, SyngentaBerkshireUK
  5. 5.Bloomsbury Centre for BioinformaticsUniversity College LondonLondonUK

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