, Volume 236, Issue 4, pp 1165–1176 | Cite as

Molecular cloning and characterization of OsCHR4, a rice chromatin-remodeling factor required for early chloroplast development in adaxial mesophyll

  • Chunfang Zhao
  • Jiming Xu
  • Yue Chen
  • Chuanzao Mao
  • Shelong Zhang
  • Youhuang Bai
  • Dean Jiang
  • Ping WuEmail author
Original Article


Mi-2 protein, the central component of the NuRD nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase complex, plays a role in transcriptional repression in animals. Mi-2-like genes have been reported in Arabidopsis, though their function in monocots remains largely unknown. In the present study, a rice Mi-2-like gene, OsCHR4 (Oryza sativa Chromatin Remodeling 4, LOC_Os07g03450), was cloned from a rice mutant with adaxial albino leaves. The Oschr4 mutant exhibited defective chloroplasts in adaxial mesophyll, but not in abaxial mesophyll. Ultrastructural observations indicated that proplastid growth and/or thylakoid membrane formation in adaxial mesophyll cells was blocked in the Oschr4 mutant. Subcellular localization revealed that OsCHR4::GFP fusion protein was targeted to the nuclei. OsCHR4 was mainly expressed in the root meristem, flower, vascular bundle, and mesophyll cells by promoter::GUS analysis in transgenic rice. The transcripts of some nuclear- and plastid-encoded genes required for early chloroplast development and photosynthesis were decreased in the adaxial albino mesophyll of the Oschr4 mutant. These observations provide evidence that OsCHR4, the rice Mi-2-like protein, plays an important role in early chloroplast development in adaxial mesophyll cells. The results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying tissue-specific chloroplast development in plants.


Abaxial mesophyll Adaxial albino leaf Map-based cloning Mi-2-like gene Oryza sativa L. 





Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding


Ethyl methanesulfonate


Green fluorescent protein


Laser capture microdissection


Multi-subunit chromatin remodeling complex


No chloroplast-containing


Nuclear encoded RNA polymerase


Open reading frame


Oryza sativa chromatin remodeling 4


Plastid encoded RNA polymerase


Quantitative real-time PCR


Reverse transcription PCR


Sequence tagged site


Transmission electron microscopy


Wild type



This work was financially supported by the National Basic Research and Development Program of China (2011CB100300), the Ministry of Agriculture of China (2011ZX08009-003-005) and the National Natural Science Foundation (30971703, 30971742).

Supplementary material

425_2012_1667_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (3.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 3333 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chunfang Zhao
    • 1
  • Jiming Xu
    • 1
  • Yue Chen
    • 1
  • Chuanzao Mao
    • 1
  • Shelong Zhang
    • 1
  • Youhuang Bai
    • 1
  • Dean Jiang
    • 1
  • Ping Wu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life ScienceZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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