, Volume 236, Issue 2, pp 579–596

Developmental, cytological and transcriptional analysis of autotetraploid Arabidopsis

  • Xiaodong Li
  • Erru Yu
  • Chuchuan Fan
  • Chunyu Zhang
  • Tingdong Fu
  • Yongming Zhou
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00425-012-1629-7

Cite this article as:
Li, X., Yu, E., Fan, C. et al. Planta (2012) 236: 579. doi:10.1007/s00425-012-1629-7


An autopolyploid that contains more than two sets of the same chromosomes causes apparent alterations in morphology, development, physiology and gene expression compared to diploid. However, the mechanisms for these changes remain largely unknown. In the present study, cytological observations of mature embryos and growing cotyledons demonstrated that enlarged organ size of an autotetraploid Arabidopsis was caused by cell size and not by cell number. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 34 core cell cycle genes revealed a subtle but stable increase in the expression of ICK1, ICK2 and ICK5 in autotetraploid seedlings. Autotetraploid Arabidopsis plants were found to be more sensitive to glucose treatment than diploid with decreased number of rosette leaves and suppressed root elongation. Cytological observations demonstrated that both cell proliferation and cell expansion of autotetraploid were dramatically suppressed under glucose treatment. Expression levels of ICK1, ICK5 together with Cyclin D and Cyclin B was increased under glucose treatment in both diploid and autotetraploid plants. These results suggest that ICK1 and ICK5 may be involved in developmental delay and that the suppressed growth under glucose treatment probably resulted from disturbed mitotic and endoreduplication cycle in autotetraploid Arabidopsis.


Arabidopsis Autotetraploid Growth and development Cell cycle gene Glucose treatment 



Wild type


Days after sowing


Days after pollination


Days after treating

Supplementary material

425_2012_1629_MOESM1_ESM.docx (56 kb)
Supplementary 1 (DOCX 61 kb)
425_2012_1629_MOESM2_ESM.tif (462 kb)
Supplementary Fig. S1 BS was an autotetraploid Col-0 (TIFF 461 kb)
425_2012_1629_MOESM3_ESM.tif (214 kb)
Supplementary Fig. S2 Rosette leaf emergence rate of BS and WT plants (TIFF 213 kb)
425_2012_1629_MOESM4_ESM.tif (270 kb)
Supplementary Fig. S3 Leaf shape was changed in autotetraploid BS (TIFF 269 kb)
425_2012_1629_MOESM5_ESM.tif (13 mb)
Supplementary Fig. S4 Phenotypes of WT and autotetraploid plants under various phytohormone treatments (TIFF 13271 kb)
425_2012_1629_MOESM6_ESM.tif (638 kb)
Supplementary Fig. S5 Plants grown on mannitol-containing medium (TIFF 637 kb)
425_2012_1629_MOESM7_ESM.tif (9.4 mb)
Supplementary Fig. S6 Epidermal cells in mature zone of BS, 4COL and WT roots (TIFF 9668 kb)
425_2012_1629_MOESM8_ESM.tif (769 kb)
Supplementary Fig. S7 Flow cytometric analysis (FCM) of autotetraploid and diploid under glucose and mannitol treatment (TIFF 769 kb)
425_2012_1629_MOESM9_ESM.tif (481 kb)
Supplementary Fig. S8 Relative expression level of cell cycle genes in WT, BS and 4COL plants under glucose treatment (TIFF 481 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaodong Li
    • 1
  • Erru Yu
    • 1
  • Chuchuan Fan
    • 1
  • Chunyu Zhang
    • 1
  • Tingdong Fu
    • 1
  • Yongming Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic ImprovementCollege of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations