, Volume 235, Issue 1, pp 181–192 | Cite as

Cytokinin-induced VvTFL1A expression may be involved in the control of grapevine fruitfulness

  • Omer Crane
  • Tamar Halaly
  • Xuequn Pang
  • Shimon Lavee
  • Avi Perl
  • Radomira Vankova
  • Etti Or
Original Article


Grapevine bud fruitfulness is determined by the differentiation of uncommitted meristem (UCM) into either tendril or inflorescence. Since tendril and inflorescence differentiation have long been considered sequential steps in inflorescence development, factors that control the progression of floral meristem development may regulate the final outcome of UCM differentiation, and thus affect fruitfulness. A comparison of the expression profiles of the master regulators of floral meristem identity (FMI) during development of fruitful and non-fruitful buds along the same cane allowed associating the expression of a homolog of terminal flower 1 (TFL1, a negative regulator of FMI) to fruitful buds, and the expression of positive FMI regulators to non-fruitful buds. Combined with (a) cytokinin-induced upregulation of VvTFL1A expression in cultured tendrils, which accompanied cytokinin-derived tendril transformation into branched, inflorescence-like structures, (b) positive regulation of VvTFL1A expression by cytokinin, which was demonstrated in transgenic embryonic culture expressing GUS reporter under the control of VvTFL1A promoter, and (c) a significantly higher level of active cytokinins in fruitful positions, the data may support the assumption of cytokinin-regulated VvTFL1A activity’s involvement in the control of inflorescence development. Such activity may delay acquisition of FMI and allow an extended branching period for the UCM, resulting in the differentiation of inflorescence primordia.


Cytokinin Floral development Fruitfulness Grapevine Tendril 







Flower meristem identity


Flowering locus 1


Gibberellic acid


Green fluorescent protein






Reiterated reproductive meristem


Shoot apical meristem


Terminal flower 1


Uncommitted meristem


Vitis vinifera

Supplementary material

425_2011_1497_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (20 kb)
Supplementary File S1 (PDF 19.8 kb)
425_2011_1497_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (46 kb)
Table S1, Table S2 (PDF 63 kb)
425_2011_1497_MOESM3_ESM.ppt (18 mb)
Fig. S1, Fig. S2, Fig. S3, Fig. S4, Fig. S5, Fig. S6 (PPT 18422 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omer Crane
    • 1
  • Tamar Halaly
    • 1
  • Xuequn Pang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shimon Lavee
    • 1
  • Avi Perl
    • 1
  • Radomira Vankova
    • 3
  • Etti Or
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Fruit Tree Sciences, Institute of HorticultureAgricultural Research Organization, Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael
  2. 2.College of Life ScienceSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.Laboratory of Hormonal Regulations in PlantsInstitute of Experimental Botany AS CRPrague 6Czech Republic

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