, Volume 234, Issue 6, pp 1127–1136 | Cite as

Isolation and characterization of the fragrant cyclamen O-methyltransferase involved in flower coloration

  • Yusuke Akita
  • Satoshi Kitamura
  • Yoshihiro Hase
  • Issay Narumi
  • Hiroshi Ishizaka
  • Emiko Kondo
  • Naoko Kameari
  • Masayoshi Nakayama
  • Natsu Tanikawa
  • Yasumasa Morita
  • Atsushi Tanaka
Original Article


Anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (OMT) is one of the key enzymes for anthocyanin modification and flower pigmentation. We previously bred a novel red-purple-flowered fragrant cyclamen (KMrp) from the purple-flowered fragrant cyclamen ‘Kaori-no-mai’ (KM) by ion-beam irradiation. Since the major anthocyanins in KMrp and KM petals were delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside and malvidin 3,5-diglucoside, respectively, inactivation of a methylation step in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway was indicated in KMrp. We isolated and compared OMT genes expressed in KM and KMrp petals. RT-PCR analysis revealed that CkmOMT2 was expressed in the petals of KM but not in KMrp. Three additional CkmOMTs with identical sequences were expressed in petals of both KM and KMrp. Genomic PCR analysis revealed that CkmOMT2 was not amplified from the KMrp genome, indicating that ion-beam irradiation caused a loss of the entire CkmOMT2 region in KMrp. In vitro enzyme assay demonstrated that CkmOMT2 catalyzes the 3′ or 3′,5′ O-methylation of the B-ring of anthocyanin substrates. These results suggest that CkmOMT2 is functional for anthocyanin methylation, and defective expression of CkmOMT2 is responsible for changes in anthocyanin composition and flower coloration in KMrp.


Anthocyanin Cyclamen Flower color O-Methyltransferase 





Delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside


Malvidin 3,5-diglucoside


Petunidin 3,5-diglucoside





We thank N. Sasaki and Y. Ozeki, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, for helpful comments on the biochemical analysis. This work was supported by a grant from the Research and Development Program for New Bio-industry Initiatives of the Bio-oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution (BRAIN).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 80 kb)
425_2011_1466_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (191 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 191 kb)
425_2011_1466_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (218 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 217 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yusuke Akita
    • 1
  • Satoshi Kitamura
    • 1
  • Yoshihiro Hase
    • 1
  • Issay Narumi
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Ishizaka
    • 2
  • Emiko Kondo
    • 2
  • Naoko Kameari
    • 2
  • Masayoshi Nakayama
    • 3
  • Natsu Tanikawa
    • 3
  • Yasumasa Morita
    • 3
  • Atsushi Tanaka
    • 1
  1. 1.Quantum Beam Science DirectorateJapan Atomic Energy AgencyTakasakiJapan
  2. 2.Horticultural LaboratorySaitama Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Research CenterKukiJapan
  3. 3.National Institute of Floricultural ScienceNational Agriculture and Food Research OrganizationTsukubaJapan

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