, Volume 234, Issue 3, pp 565–577 | Cite as

The HyPRP gene EARLI1 has an auxiliary role for germinability and early seedling development under low temperature and salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana

  • Dan Xu
  • Xuan Huang
  • Zi-Qin Xu
  • Michael SchläppiEmail author
Original Article


The effect of the hybrid proline-rich protein (HyPRP) gene EARLI1 on the rate of germination (germinability) of Arabidopsis seeds and seedling growth under low temperature and salt stress conditions was investigated. EARLI1 was induced during germination in embryonic tissues, and was strongly expressed in certain parts of young seedlings. Comparisons of control, overexpressing (OX), and knockout (KO) lines indicated that higher than wild type levels of EARLI1 improved germinability, root elongation, and reduction of sodium accumulation in leaves under salt stress, as well as germinability under low-temperature stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) contents were relatively low after prolonged salt stress, suggesting that EARLI1 has an ABA-independent effect on germinability under these conditions. Overexpression of EARLI1 during germination enhanced the sensitivity of seeds to exogenously applied ABA, suggesting that EARLI1 has an ABA-dependent negative effect on seed germinability under high ABA stress conditions. Well-known stress response marker genes such as COR15a, KIN1, P5SC1, and RD29 were unaffected whereas P5SC2, RD22, or RAB18 were only slightly affected in OX and KO plants. The pleiotropic effects of EARLI1 during stress and an absence of strong regulatory effects on stress marker genes suggest that this HyPRP gene has an auxiliary role for various stress protection responses in Arabidopsis.


8CM Cotyledon expression Endosperm expression GUS assays Hybrid proline-rich proteins Low-temperature stress Salinity stress 





Abscisic acid






Gibberellic acid




Hybrid glycine-rich protein


Hybrid proline-rich protein




Lipid transfer protein




Proline-rich domain


Quantitative trait locus LOW TEMPERATURE GERMINABILITY 3-1



We thank Dr. Richard Wilkosz for helping with the GUS constructs. We strongly appreciate the expertise of Drs. Jinfang Chu, Xiaohong Sun, and Cunyu Yan (National Centre for Plant Gene Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China) in determining the ABA contents of Arabidopsis seedlings. We are very grateful to Dr. Chengcai Chu (Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences) and members of his laboratory for technical and material assistance regarding the qPCR and hormone detection analyses. This work was supported in part by a grant from the US Department of Agriculture (96-35301-3867), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30870194), the Provincial Key Laboratory Research Project of the Education Department of Shaanxi Province (08JZ70, 2010JS090), the Development Project of Science and Technology Research of Shaanxi Province (the Program for Tackling Key Problems, 2010K16-04-01) and the Postgraduate Innovation Research Project of Northwest University (09YSY38).

Supplementary material

425_2011_1425_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (787 kb)
Supplementary Figure S1 (PDF 787 kb)
425_2011_1425_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (103 kb)
Supplementary Figure S2 (PDF 103 kb)
425_2011_1425_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (574 kb)
Supplementary Figure S3 (PDF 574 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dan Xu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Xuan Huang
    • 1
  • Zi-Qin Xu
    • 1
  • Michael Schläppi
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Institute of Life ScienceNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesMarquette UniversityMilwaukeeUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Genetics and Developmental BiologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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