The transcriptome of cis-jasmone-induced resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and its role in indirect defence
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cis-jasmone (CJ) is a plant-derived chemical that enhances direct and indirect plant defence against herbivorous insects. To study the signalling pathway behind this defence response, we performed microarray-based transcriptome analysis of CJ-treated Arabidopsis plants. CJ influenced a different set of genes from the structurally related oxylipin methyl jasmonate (MeJA), suggesting that CJ triggers a distinct signalling pathway. CJ is postulated to be biosynthetically derived from jasmonic acid, which can boost its own production through transcriptional up-regulation of the octadecanoid biosynthesis genes LOX2,AOS and OPR3. However, no effect on these genes was detected by treatment with CJ. Furthermore, CJ-responsive genes were not affected by mutations in COI1 or JAR1, which are critical signalling components in MeJA response pathway. Conversely, a significant proportion of CJ-inducible genes required the three transcription factors TGA2, TGA5 and TGA6, as well as the GRAS regulatory protein SCARECROW-like 14 (SCL14), indicating regulation by a different pathway from the classical MeJA response. Moreover, the biological importance was demonstrated in that mutations in TGA2, 5, 6, SCL14 and the CJ-inducible gene CYP81D11 blocked CJ-induced attraction of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi, demonstrating that these components play a key role in CJ-induced indirect defence. Collectively, our results identify CJ as a member of the jasmonates that controls indirect plant defence through a distinct signalling pathway.
KeywordsIndirect defence Jasmonate signalling cis-Jasmone Tritrophic interactions
Methyl vinyl ketone
Reactive electrophile species
Rothamsted Research receives grant-aided support from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council BBSRC (UK). The authors thank Christiane Gatz (University of Göttingen, Germany) for helpful discussions and the SCL14 lines. Research activities by Jurriaan Ton are supported by a BBSRC Institute Career Path Fellowship (BB/E023959/1).
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