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Planta

, Volume 232, Issue 4, pp 999–1005 | Cite as

The beneficial effect of small toxic molecules on dormancy alleviation and germination of apple embryos is due to NO formation

  • Agnieszka GniazdowskaEmail author
  • Urszula Krasuska
  • Karolina Dębska
  • Paulina Andryka
  • Renata Bogatek
Rapid Communication

Abstract

Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) seeds is terminated by a 3-month-long cold stratification. It is expressed by rapid germination of seeds and undisturbed growth of seedlings. However, stimulation of germination of isolated apple embryos is also observed after applying inhibitors of cytochrome c oxidase: nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during the first 3–6 h of imbibition of dormant embryos. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of yet another toxic gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO) with the effects of HCN and NO on germination of apple embryos and growth and development of young seedlings. We demonstrated that stimulation of germination after short-term pre-treatment with HCN, NO or CO was accompanied by enhanced NO emission from the embryo axes during their elongation. Moreover, similarly high NO production from non-dormant embryos, after cold stratification, was detected. Therefore, we propose that NO may act as signaling molecule in apple embryo dormancy break.

Keywords

Carbon monoxide Hydrogen cyanide Nitric oxide Seed dormancy Seed germination 

Abbreviations

ABA

Abscisic acid

CO

Carbon monoxide

cPTIO

2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide

HCN

Hydrogen cyanide

NO

Nitric oxide

SNP

Sodium nitroprusside

Notes

Acknowledgments

Part of this work was supported by Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland, Grant No. N N303 0905 34.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agnieszka Gniazdowska
    • 1
    Email author
  • Urszula Krasuska
    • 1
  • Karolina Dębska
    • 1
  • Paulina Andryka
    • 1
  • Renata Bogatek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant PhysiologyWarsaw University of Life Science (SGGW)WarsawPoland

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