, Volume 229, Issue 1, pp 87–98 | Cite as

Expression of callose synthase genes and its connection with Npr1 signaling pathway during pathogen infection

  • Xiaoyun Dong
  • Zonglie Hong
  • Jayanta Chatterjee
  • Sunghan Kim
  • Desh Pal S. VermaEmail author
Original Article


Callose synthesis occurs at specific stages of plant cell wall development in all cell types, and in response to pathogen attack, wounding and physiological stresses. We determined the expression pattern of “upstream regulatory sequence” of 12 Arabidopsis callose synthase genes (CalS112) genes and demonstrated that different callose synthases are expressed specifically in different tissues during plant development. That multiple CalS genes are expressed in the same cell type suggests the possibility that CalS complex may be constituted by heteromeric subunits. Five CalS genes were induced by pathogen (Hyaloperonospora arabidopsis, previously known as Peronospora parasitica, the causal agent of downy mildew) or salicylic acid (SA), while the other seven CalS genes were not affected by these treatments. Among the genes that are induced, CalS1 and CalS12 showed the highest responses. In Arabidopsis npr1 mutant, impaired in response of pathogenesis related (PR) genes to SA, the induction of CalS1 and CalS12 genes by the SA or pathogen treatments was significantly reduced. The patterns of expression of the other three CalS genes were not changed significantly in the npr1 mutant. These results suggest that the high induction observed of CalS1 and CalS12 is Npr1 dependent while the weak induction of five CalS genes is Npr1 independent. In a T-DNA knockout mutant of CalS12, callose encasement around the haustoria on the infected leaves was reduced and the mutant was found to be more resistant to downy mildew as compared to the wild type plants.


Callose Downy mildew Gene expression Tissue specific promoter Salicylic acid Plant pathogen Cell wall 



Activating sequence 1




Callose synthase


Glucan synthase-like




Jasmonic acid


Methyl jasmonic acid


Naphthalene (salicylate) hydroxylase G


Nonexpresser of PR genes


Powdery mildew resistant 4


Salicylic acid


Systemic acquired resistance


cis-acting element TGACG


The basic leucine zipper transcription factors that recognize cis-acting element TGACG


cis-acting element (TTGAC) that is recognized by WRKY proteins

WRKY proteins

DNA-binding proteins containing a highly conserved WRKY sequence



We thank Drs. J. McDowell (Virginia Technology Institute) for providing H. arabidopsis isolate Emco5; D. Bisaro (Ohio State University) for comments on this manuscript, and ABRC (Ohio State University) for seeds of Arabidopsis npr1-3, nahG, and T-DNA insertional lines. This work was supported by NSF grant IBN-0095112.

Supplementary material

425_2008_812_MOESM1_ESM.doc (28 kb)
Supplemental Tables I and II (DOC 28 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoyun Dong
    • 1
    • 3
  • Zonglie Hong
    • 2
    • 4
  • Jayanta Chatterjee
    • 2
  • Sunghan Kim
    • 2
  • Desh Pal S. Verma
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Plant Biotechnology Center, Department of Plant Pathology and Department of Molecular GeneticsThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Plant Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular GeneticsThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.The Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology, Molecular Biology and BiochemistryUniversity of IdahoMoscowUSA

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