, 228:401 | Cite as

Green corolla segments in a wild Petunia species caused by a mutation in FBP2, a SEPALLATA-like MADS box gene

  • Kiyoshi Matsubara
  • Katsuyoshi Shimamura
  • Hiroaki Kodama
  • Hisashi Kokubun
  • Hitoshi Watanabe
  • Isabel L. Basualdo
  • Toshio Ando
Original Article


A Petunia inflata isolate with a novel phenotype of a purple corolla limb with green corolla segments (GCS) was characterized. The GCS have stomata and trichomes on the adaxial side, and resemble calyx segments in epidermal morphology. The GCS phenotype was inherited in a recessive manner. In the GCS plant, a novel inhibitor/defective spm-like transposable element (dPifTp1) was inserted in the second intron of the Floral Binding Protein 2 (FBP2) gene. The sequence of the resulting transcript contained five silent mutations as compared the corresponding open reading frame of P. × hybrida FBP2 mRNA. The GCS phenotype co-segregated with an FBP2 fragment containing a dPifTp1 insertion. The transcript level of the FBP2 gene in GCS flowers was markedly lower than that in wild-type (WT) flowers, suggesting that partially inhibited FBP2 gene expression caused the morphogenesis of calyx-like tissue in the corolla segments of GCS flowers. Gene expression pattern analysis using a full-length Petunia floral cDNA microarray indicated that some photosynthesis-related genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in the GCS of GCS flowers, but the mRNA levels of most other genes in the GCS were similar to those in the WT corolla. Taken together, these data suggest that the partial loss of FBP2 expression does not shift global gene expression in the corolla segments of the GCS flower toward that of calyx, even though calyx-like morphogenesis was established in the corolla segments.


cDNA microarray FBP2 gene Floral morphology MADS box Petunia Transposon 



Floral Binding Protein 2


Green corolla segments


Suppressor mutator


Wild type

Supplementary material

425_2008_744_MOESM1_ESM.tif (205 kb)
PCR analysis of DNA isolated from P. inflata WT (lane 1), GCS (lane 2), and F1 (lane 3) and F2 (lane 4 to 6) generations produced by crossing a WT plant and a GCS plant. The DNA fragment was amplified with the primers fbp2-f3 (5’-GCACCAGAGACTAATATATCCACACG-3’) and fbp2-r3 (5’-TTGGCTGCTTATTTCCTGTAATCAT-3’). The fragment length is associated with the alleles FBP2 (1.7 kbp) and fbp2 with dPifTp1 (3.8 kbp). Phenotypes and generations are shown below each lane. The numbers to the left indicate DNA size markers (in kb) (TIFF 205 kb)
425_2008_744_MOESM2_ESM.tif (178 kb)
Scatter plots of expression distribution patterns of 2,976 ESTs after microarray hybridization with labelled cDNA probes obtained from mRNAs of four different floral tissues: GCS limb (purple corolla limb of GCS mutant), GCS segment (green corolla segments of GCS mutant), WT corolla (purple corolla segments plus purple corolla limb of WT), and WT calyx (calyx segments of WT). The diagonal lines indicate 1.5-fold relative intensity differences between the two RNA samples. On each diagram, the FBP2 gene is represented by solid triangles. The genes upregulated in GCS segment and WT calyx as compared to WT corolla are represented by open triangles. (a) Distribution of the signal log ratio values for WT corolla (x axis) and GCS limb (y axis). (b) Distribution of the signal log ratio values for WT corolla (x axis) and GCS segment (y axis). (c) Distribution of the signal log ratio values for WT corolla (x axis) and WT calyx (y axis) (TIFF 178 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiyoshi Matsubara
    • 1
  • Katsuyoshi Shimamura
    • 1
  • Hiroaki Kodama
    • 2
  • Hisashi Kokubun
    • 3
  • Hitoshi Watanabe
    • 3
  • Isabel L. Basualdo
    • 4
  • Toshio Ando
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of HorticultureChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  3. 3.Center for Environment, Health and Field SciencesChiba UniversityKashiwa, ChibaJapan
  4. 4.Sección Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasUniversidad Nacional de AsunciónSan LorenzoParaguay

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