Anionic derivatives of xyloglucan function as acceptor but not donor substrates for xyloglucan endotransglucosylase activity
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Tamarind xyloglucan was oxidised by reaction with sodium hypochlorite in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy free radical (TEMPO). Galactose residues and non-xylosylated glucose residues were thus converted into galacturonic and glucuronic acid residues, respectively, producing an anionic polysaccharide. Acid hydrolysis of oxidised xyloglucan yielded two aldobiouronic acids, deduced to be β-d-GalpA-(1→2)-d-Xyl and β-d-GlcpA-(1→4)-d-Glc. Anionic xyloglucan had a decreased ability to hydrogen-bond to cellulose and to complex with iodine. It was almost totally resistant to digestion by cellulase [endo-(1→4)-β-glucanase] and did not serve as a donor substrate for xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity. Like several other anionic polysaccharides, it promoted XET activity when unmodified (non-ionic) xyloglucan was used as donor substrate. Anionic xyloglucan may mimic polyanions whose presence in the plant cell wall promotes the action of endogenous XTH proteins. NaOCl with TEMPO oxidised the heptasaccharide, XXXG, to form XXX-glucarate, which did serve as an acceptor substrate although at a rate approximately fourfold less than XXXG itself. Anionic derivatives of xyloglucan, acting as acceptor but not donor substrates, may be valuable tools for exploring the biological roles of XTHs in the integration versus the re-structuring of xyloglucan in the plant cell wall.
KeywordsCell expansion Hemicellulose XET activity Transglycosylation Glucaric acid Xyloglucan oxidation
Degree of polymerisation
Mixed-linkage (1→3), (1→4)-β-d-glucan
Pyridine/acetic acid/water (1:1:98, by vol., pH 4.7) containing 0.5% chlorobutanol
Xyloglucan endohydrolase (activity)
Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (activity)
Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (protein)
- XXXGol, XLLG, etc.
Oligosaccharides of xyloglucan (for abbreviated nomenclature see ref. Fry et al. 1993)