, Volume 226, Issue 5, pp 1207–1218 | Cite as

Modification of cell proliferation patterns alters leaf vein architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana

  • Julie KangEmail author
  • Yukiko Mizukami
  • Hong Wang
  • Larry Fowke
  • Nancy G. Dengler
Original Article


Formation of leaf vascular pattern requires regulation of a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation. To assess the role of cell proliferation during vein order formation, leaf development in genetic lines exhibiting aberrant cell proliferation patterns due to altered expression patterns of ANT and ICK1 genes was analyzed. Modification of cell proliferation patterns alters the number of higher order veins and the number of minor tertiary veins remodeled as intersecondary veins in Arabidopsis rosette leaves. Minor vein complexity, as indicated by branch point and freely ending veinlet number, is highly correlated with a decrease or increase in cell proliferation. Observations of procambial strand formation in modified cell proliferation pattern lines showed that vein pattern is specified early in leaf development and that formation of freely ending veinlets is temporally correlated with the expansion of ground meristem when cell proliferation is terminated prematurely. Taken together, our observations indicate that: (1) genes that modulate cell proliferation play a key role in regulating the meristematic competence of ground meristem cells to form procambium and vein pattern during leaf development, and (2) ANT is a crucial part of this regulation.


Arabidopsis Cell expansion Cell proliferation Leaf development Procambium Vein pattern 





Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox gene-8









We thank Dr. John Celenza (Boston University, Boston, MA, USA) and Dr. Giorgio Morelli (Instituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione, Italy) for gifts of the CYCB1;1::GUS and pATHB8::GUS reporter constructs, respectively. We are also grateful to Dr. Susan Gilmer for 35S::ICK1 crosses, Dr. Timothy Dickinson for statistical advice and to Dr. Thomas Berleth and Dr. Enrico Scarpella for helpful discussion.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julie Kang
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  • Yukiko Mizukami
    • 2
  • Hong Wang
    • 3
  • Larry Fowke
    • 4
  • Nancy G. Dengler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell and Systems BiologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  4. 4.Department of BiologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  5. 5.Section of Plant Biology, 1002 Life SciencesUniversity of California DavisDavisUSA

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