, Volume 226, Issue 4, pp 1053–1058 | Cite as

Spinach SoHXK1 is a mitochondria-associated hexokinase

  • Hila Damari-Weissler
  • Alexandra Ginzburg
  • David Gidoni
  • Anahit Mett
  • Inga Krassovskaya
  • Andreas P. M. Weber
  • Eddy Belausov
  • David GranotEmail author
Rapid Communication


Hexokinase, a hexose-phosphorylating enzyme, has emerged as a central enzyme in sugar-sensing processes. A few HXK isozymes have been identified in various plant species. These isozymes have been classified into two major groups; plastidic (type A) isozymes located in the plastid stroma and those containing a membrane anchor domain (type B) located mainly adjacent to the mitochondria, but also found in the nucleus. Of all the hexokinases that have been characterized to date, the only exception to this rule is a spinach type B HXK (SoHXK1) that, by means of subcellular fractionation, has been localized to the outer membrane of plastids. However, SoHXK1 has a membrane anchor domain that is almost identical to that of the other type B HXKs. To determine the localization of SoHXK1 enzyme by other means, we expressed SoHXK1::GFP fusion protein in tobacco and Arabidopsis protoplasts and compared its localization with that of the Arabidopsis AtHXK1::GFP fusion protein that shares a similar N-terminal membrane anchor domain. SoHXK1::GFP is localized adjacent to the mitochondria, similar to AtHXK1::GFP and all other previously examined type B HXKs. Proteomic analysis had previously identified AtHXK1 on the outside of the mitochondrial membrane. We, therefore, suggest that SoHXK1 enzyme is located adjacent to the mitochondria like the other type B HXKs that share the same N-terminal membrane anchor domain.


GFP Hexokinase Hexose phosphorylation Intracellular localization 



Green fluorescent protein





This research was supported by research grant No. 890/06 from The Israel Science Foundation, research grants No. IS-3397-06 and No. CA-9100-06 from BARD, the United States—Israel Binational Agricultural and Development Fund, and a grant from the US Department of Energy to A.P.M.W. (DE-FG02-04ER15562).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hila Damari-Weissler
    • 1
  • Alexandra Ginzburg
    • 1
  • David Gidoni
    • 1
  • Anahit Mett
    • 1
  • Inga Krassovskaya
    • 2
  • Andreas P. M. Weber
    • 2
  • Eddy Belausov
    • 1
  • David Granot
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research OrganizationThe Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Plant BiologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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