Planta

, Volume 220, Issue 6, pp 900–909

(Z)-3-Hexenol induces defense genes and downstream metabolites in maize

  • Mohamed A. Farag
  • Mohamed Fokar
  • Haggag Abd
  • Huiming Zhang
  • Randy D. Allen
  • Paul W. Paré
Original Article

Abstract

In response to insect feeding, corn plants (Zea mays cv. Delprim) release elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including the C6-volatile (Z)-3-hexenol. The level of mRNA accumulation for a series of defense genes was monitored in response to application of (Z)-3-hexenol (50 nmol) to undamaged plants. The induction of transcripts for hpl (hydroperoxide lyase), fps (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase), pal (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), lox (lipoxygenase), igl (indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase) and mpi (maize proteinase inhibitor) were compared with metabolites generated from the respective pathways. While headspace VOC analysis showed an increase in (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and methyl salicylate with lox and pal induction, respectively, MPI accumulation was not observed with an increase in mpi transcripts. Moreover, (Z)-3-hexenol treatment did not elevate sesquiterpene emissions or activate fps transcription. Chemical labeling and bioassay experiments established that exogenous (Z)-3-hexenol can be taken up and converted to a less active acetylated form. These data indicate that (Z)-3-hexenol can serve as a signaling molecule that triggers defense responses in maize and can rapidly be turned over in planta.

Keywords

C6-volatiles (Z)-3-Hexenol Methyl jasmonate Terpenes Volatile organic compounds Zea 

Abbreviations

BAW

Beet armyworm

FPS

Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase

GAP C

Glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, cytosolic form

HMGR

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase

HPL

Hydroperoxide lyase

IGL

Indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase

LOX

Lipoxygenase

MeJA

Methyl jasmonate

MeSA

Methyl salicylate

MPI

Maize proteinase inhibitor

PAL

Phenylalanine ammonia lyase

VOC

Volatile organic compound

Supplementary material

supp.pdf (25 kb)
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed A. Farag
    • 1
  • Mohamed Fokar
    • 2
  • Haggag Abd
    • 2
  • Huiming Zhang
    • 1
  • Randy D. Allen
    • 2
  • Paul W. Paré
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry & BiochemistryTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

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