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Planta

, Volume 219, Issue 5, pp 733–742 | Cite as

Plant two-component systems: principles, functions, complexity and cross talk

  • Christopher Grefen
  • Klaus HarterEmail author
Review

Abstract

Two-component systems have emerged as important sensing/response mechanisms in higher plants. They are composed of hybrid histidine kinases, histidine-containing phosphotransfer domain proteins and response regulators that are biochemically linked by His-to-Asp phosphorelay. In plants two-component systems play a major role in cytokinin perception and signalling and contribute to ethylene signal transduction and osmosensing. Furthermore, developmental processes like megagametogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana and flowering promotion in rice (Oryza sativa) involve elements of two-component systems. Two-component-like elements also function as components of the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Because of the molecular mode of signalling, plant two-component systems also appear to serve as intensive cross talk and signal integration machinery. In this review we summarize the present knowledge about the principles and functions of two-component systems in higher plants and address several critical points with respect to cross talk, signal integration and specificity.

Keywords

Two-component system Histidine kinase Phosphotransfer protein Response regulator Osmoregulation Signalling (cytokinin, ethylene) 

Abbreviations

AHK

Arabidopsis histidine kinase

AHP

Arabidopsis histidine-containing phosphotransfer domain protein

APRR

Arabidopsis pseudo response regulator

ARR

Arabidopsis response regulator

CCT

CONSTANS CONSTANS-like TOC1

CKI

Cytokinin insensitive

CRE

Cytokinin response

CTR

Constitutive triple response

Ehd

Early heading date

EIN

Ethylene insensitive

ERS

Ethylene response sensor

ETR

Ethylene resistant

GARP-motif

Found in Golden2 of maize, Arabidopsis B-type response regulators and Chlamydomonas Psr1

HPt

Histidine-containing phosphotransfer domain

NLS

Nuclear localization signal

phyB

Phytochrome B

TCS

Two-component signalling

TOC

Timing of CAB (chlorophyll a/b-binding protein) expression

WOL

Wooden leg

Notes

Acknowledgements

Because of space limitation, we would like to apologize for not citing the papers of all people working in the area of plant two-component systems. Our research in this area is supported by a DFG/AFGN grant to K.H.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Botanisches InstitutUniversität zu KölnKölnGermany

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