The role of GRAS proteins in plant signal transduction and development
GRAS proteins are a recently discovered family of plant-specific proteins named after GAI, RGA and SCR, the first three of its members isolated. Although the Arabidopsis genome encodes at least 33 GRAS protein family members only a few GRAS proteins have been characterized so far. However, it is becoming clear that GRAS proteins exert important roles in very diverse processes such as signal transduction, meristem maintenance and development. Here we present a survey of the different GRAS proteins and review the current knowledge of the function of individual members of this protein family.
KeywordsArabidopsis DELLA proteins Development GRAS proteins Protein family Signal transduction
I thank Reinhold G. Herrmann, Randy Foster and the members of the group for useful discussion and critical reading of the manuscript. I am grateful to Nam-Hai Chua for support during the first stages of this project. My thanks to Philip Benfey for sharing information before publication. I apologize to those colleagues whose work was not cited because of space limitations. Work in my laboratory is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network (AFGN, grant no. BO 1146/4-1 to C.B.).
- Fu X, Richards DE, Ait-Ali T, Hynes LW, Ougham H, Peng J, Harberd NP (2002) Gibberellin-mediated proteasome-dependent degradation of the barley DELLA protein SLN1 repressor. Plant Cell 14:3191–3200Google Scholar
- Ikeda A, Ueguchi-Tanaka M, Sonoda Y, Kitano H, Koshioka M, Futsuhara Y, Matsuoka M, Yamaguchi J (2001) slender rice, a constitutive gibberellin response mutant, is caused by a null mutation of the SLR1 gene, an ortholog of the height-regulating gene GAI/RGA/RHT/D8. Plant Cell 13:999–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Itoh H, Ueguchi-Tanaka M, Sato Y, Ashikari M, Matsuoka M (2002) The gibberellin signaling pathway is regulated by the appearance and disappearance of SLENDER RICE1 in nuclei. Plant Cell 14:57–70Google Scholar
- Llave C, Kasschau KD, Rector MA, Carrington JC (2002a) Endogenous and silencing-associated small RNAs in plants. Plant Cell 14:1605–1619Google Scholar
- McGinnis KM, Thomas SG, Soule JD, Strader LC, Zale JM, Sun TP, Steber CM (2003) The Arabidopsis SLEEPY1 gene encodes a putative F-box subunit of an SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase. Plant Cell 15:1120–1130Google Scholar
- Morel JB, Godon C, Mourrain P, Beclin C, Boutet S, Feuerbach F, Proux F, Vaucheret H (2002) Fertile hypomorphic ARGONAUTE (ago1) mutants impaired in post-transcriptional gene silencing and virus resistance. Plant Cell 14:629–639Google Scholar
- Nakajima K, Benfey PN (2002) Signaling in and out: control of cell division and differentiation in the shoot and root. Plant Cell [Suppl] 14:265–276Google Scholar
- Olszewski N, Sun TP, Gubler F (2002) Gibberellin signaling: biosynthesis, catabolism, and response pathways. Plant Cell [Suppl] 14:61–80Google Scholar
- Silverstone AL, Jung HS, Dill A, Kawaide H, Kamiya Y, Sun TP (2001) Repressing a repressor: gibberellin-induced rapid reduction of the RGA protein in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 13:1555–1566Google Scholar
- Wen CK, Chang C (2002) Arabidopsis RGL1 encodes a negative regulator of gibberellin responses. Plant Cell 14:87–100Google Scholar