Planta

, Volume 218, Issue 6, pp 938–946 | Cite as

Nitric oxide is induced by wounding and influences jasmonic acid signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana

  • Xi Huang
  • Kurt Stettmaier
  • Christa Michel
  • Peter Hutzler
  • Martin J. Mueller
  • Jörg Durner
Original Article

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) has been associated with plant defense responses during microbial attack, and with induction and/or regulation of programmed cell death. Here, we addressed whether NO participates in wound responses in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.. Real-time imaging by confocal laser-scanning microscopy in conjunction with the NO-selective fluorescence indicator 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 DA) uncovered a strong NO burst after wounding or after treatment with JA. The NO burst was triggered within minutes, reminiscent of the oxidative burst during hypersensitive responses. Furthermore, we were able to detect NO in plants (here induced by wounding) by means of electron paramagnetic resonance measurements using diethyldithiocarbamate as a spin trap. When plants were treated with NO, Northern analyses revealed that NO strongly induces key enzymes of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis such as allene oxide synthase (AOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX2). On the other hand, wound-induced AOS gene expression was independent of NO. Furthermore, JA-responsive genes such as defensin (PDF1.2) were not induced, and NO induction of JA-biosynthesis enzymes did not result in elevated levels of JA. However, treatment with NO resulted in accumulation of salicylic acid (SA). In transgenic NahG plants (impaired in SA accumulation and/or signaling), NO did induce JA production and expression of JA-responsive genes. Altogether, the presented data demonstrate that wounding in Arabidopsis induces a fast accumulation of NO, and that NO may be involved in JA-associated defense responses and adjustments.

Keywords

Arabidopsis Jasmonic acid Nitric oxide Salicylic acid Wounding 

Abbreviations

AOS

Allene oxide synthase

cPTIO

Carboxy-2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazolinone-3-oxide-1-oxyl

DAF-2 DA

4,5-Diaminofluorescein diacetate

DETC

Diethyldithiocarbamate

EPR

Electron paramagnetic resonance

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

JA

Jasmonic acid

JIP

Jasmonic acid-induced protein

LOX2

Lipoxygenase 2

NO

Nitric oxide

OPR3

12-Oxophytodienoate reductase

PDF1.2

Plant defensin

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SA

Salicylic acid

SNP

Sodium nitroprusside

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xi Huang
    • 1
  • Kurt Stettmaier
    • 2
  • Christa Michel
    • 2
  • Peter Hutzler
    • 3
  • Martin J. Mueller
    • 4
  • Jörg Durner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biochemical Plant PathologyGSF—National Research Center for Environment and HealthOberschleissheimGermany
  2. 2.Institute of RadiobiologyGSF—National Research Center for Environment and HealthOberschleissheimGermany
  3. 3.Institute of PathologyGSF—National Research Center for Environment and HealthOberschleissheimGermany
  4. 4.Lehrstuhl Pharmazeutische BiologieJulius-von-Sachs-Institut fuer BiowissenschaftenWuerzburgGermany

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