Exercise training–induced changes in metabolic syndrome parameters, carotid wall thickness, and thyroid function in middle-aged women with subclinical hypothyroidism

  • Nayoung Ahn
  • Hye Soon Kim
  • Kijin KimEmail author
Original Article


This study analyzed the differences in effects of a 12-week combination of exercise training program with resistance training and aerobic exercises on the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, carotid wall thickness, and thyroid function, between subclinical hypothyroidism patients and obese groups, in middle-aged women. Subjects consisted of either 20 middle-aged women in the subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) group or 20 obese (body mass indices [BMI], ≥ 25 kg/m2) women without hypothyroidism in the obese (OB) group. The body composition, blood lipid factors, hormones associated with thyroid functions, blood pressure (BP), and carotid intima-media thickness were measured, while physical fitness was ascertained. In the SCH group, waist circumference (WC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values were outside the normal ranges, while WC and systolic BP (SBP) were outside the normal ranges in the OB group. Following the 12-week training program, significantly positive changes occurred in body fat percentage, sit and reach test results, and SBP (p < 0.05) in the SCH group, while in the OB group, significantly positive changes in BMI, WC, sit and reach test results, SBP, and diastolic BP (DBP, p < 0.05) were observed. In addition, both groups showed significant decreases in intima-media thickness of the right carotid bifurcation (p < 0.05). However, in the two groups, the 12-week exercise training program did not have similar significant impact on the hormones related to thyroid functions and blood lipids. Therefore, further research on exercise training that can effectively induce changes in the hormones associated with thyroid functions in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism is necessary.


Subclinical hypothyroidism Obesity Exercise training Middle-aged women 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The research protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of Keimyung University College of Medicine and Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center (approval number: 10-184-01.06).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Education, College of Physical EducationKeimyung UniversityDaeguSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, School of MedicineKeimyung UniversityDaeguSouth Korea

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