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T-type channel-mediated neurotransmitter release

  • Emilio CarboneEmail author
  • Chiara Calorio
  • David H. F. Vandael
Invited Review

Abstract

Besides controlling a wide variety of cell functions, T-type channels have been shown to regulate neurotransmitter release in peripheral and central synapses and neuroendocrine cells. Growing evidence over the last 10 years suggests a key role of Cav3.2 and Cav3.1 channels in controlling basal neurosecretion near resting conditions and sustained release during mild stimulations. In some cases, the contribution of low-voltage-activated (LVA) channels is not directly evident but requires either the activation of coupled presynaptic receptors, block of ion channels, or chelation of metal ions. Concerning the coupling to the secretory machinery, T-type channels appear loosely coupled to neurotransmitter and hormone release. In neurons, Cav3.2 and Cav3.1 channels mainly control the asynchronous appearance of “minis” [miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs)]. The same loose coupling is evident from membrane capacity and amperometric recordings in chromaffin cells and melanotropes where the low-threshold-driven exocytosis possesses the same linear Ca2+ dependence of the other voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Cav1 and Cav2) that is strongly attenuated by slow calcium buffers. The intriguing issue is that, despite not expressing a consensus “synprint” site, Cav3.2 channels do interact with syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25 and, thus, may form nanodomains with secretory vesicles that can be regulated at low voltages. In this review, we discuss all the past and recent issues related to T-type channel-secretion coupling in neurons and neuroendocrine cells.

Keywords

LVA calcium channels T-type channel-secretion coupling Vesicle exocytosis Neurons Synaptic transmission Neuroendocrine chromaffin cells 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the Italian M.I.U.R., Regione Piemonte, Università di Torino, Compagnia di San Paolo di Torino for funding.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emilio Carbone
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chiara Calorio
    • 1
  • David H. F. Vandael
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Drug Science, Lab of Cellular Physiology and Molecular Neuroscience, NIS Center, CNISM UnitUniversity of TorinoTorinoItaly

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