Regulation of renin secretion by renal juxtaglomerular cells

  • Ulla G. Friis
  • Kirsten Madsen
  • Jane Stubbe
  • Pernille B. L. Hansen
  • Per Svenningsen
  • Peter Bie
  • Ole Skøtt
  • Boye L. JensenEmail author
Invited Review


A major rate-limiting step in the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is the release of active renin from endocrine cells (juxtaglomerular (JG) cells) in the media layer of the afferent glomerular arterioles. The number and distribution of JG cells vary with age and the physiological level of stimulation; fetal life and chronic stimulation by extracellular volume contraction is associated with recruitment of renin-producing cells. Upon stimulation of renin release, labeled renin granules “disappear;” the number of granules decrease; cell membrane surface area increases in single cells, and release is quantal. Together, this indicates exocytosis as the predominant mode of release. JG cells release few percent of total renin content by physiological stimulation, and recruitment of renin cells is preferred to recruitment of granules during prolonged stimulation. Several endocrine and paracrine agonists, neurotransmitters, and cell swelling converge on the stimulatory cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway. Renin secretion is attenuated in mice deficient in beta-adrenoceptors, prostaglandin E2–EP4 receptors, Gsα protein, and adenylyl cyclases 5 and 6. Phosphodiesterases (PDE) 3 and 4 degrade cAMP in JG cells, and PDE3 is inhibited by cyclic GMP (cGMP) and couples the cGMP pathway to the cAMP pathway. Cyclic AMP enhances K+-current in JG cells and is permissive for secretion by stabilizing membrane potential far from threshold that activates L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Intracellular calcium paradoxically inhibits renin secretion likely through attenuated formation and enhanced degradation of cAMP; by activation of chloride currents and interaction with calcineurin. Connexin 40 is necessary for localization of JG cells in the vascular wall and for pressure- and macula densa-dependent suppression of renin release.


Cyclic AMP Juxtaglomerular cells Renin secretion 



The authors wish to thank Annette K. Rasmussen Mette Fredenslund, Lis Teusch, Gitte Dybmose, and Inge Andersen for their skillful technical assistance. Work in the authors’ lab has been supported by grants from Carlsbergfondet, the Danish Research Council for Health and Disease, the Strategic Research Council, the Danish Heart Foundation, the NOVO Nordisk Foundation, the Lundbeck Foundation, AP Moller Foundation, Helen and Ejnar Bjørnows Foundation, the Foundation for the Promotion of Medical Science, and the Foundation of 17.12.1981.


  1. 1.
    Aldehni F, Tang T, Madsen K, Plattner M, Schreiber A, Friis UG, Hammond HK, Han PL, Schweda F (2011) Stimulation of renin secretion by catecholamines is dependent on adenylyl cyclases 5 and 6. Hypertension 57:460–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beierwaltes WH (2006) A different vision of the osmolar regulation of renin secretion. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290:F795–F796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berka JL, Alcorn D, Ryan GB, Skinner SL (1992) Renin processing studied by immunogold localization of prorenin and renin in granular juxtaglomerular cells in mice treated with enalapril. Cell Tissue Res 268:141–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berka JL, Alcorn D, Ryan GB, Skinner SL, Weaver DA (1993) Renin processing in cultured juxtaglomerular cells of the hydronephrotic mouse kidney. J Histochem Cytochem 41:365–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blaine EH, Davis JO (1971) Evidence for a renal vascular mechanism in renin release: new observations with graded stimulation by aortic constriction. Circ Res 28(Suppl 2):118–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bock HA, Hermle M, Brunner FP, Thiel G (1992) Pressure dependent modulation of renin release in isolated perfused glomeruli. Kidney Int 41:275–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brown RD, Thoren P, Steege A, Mrowka R, Sallstrom J, Skott O, Fredholm BB, Persson AE (2006) Influence of the adenosine A1 receptor on blood pressure regulation and renin release. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290:R1324–R1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brunskill EW, Sequeira-Lopez ML, Pentz ES, Lin E, Yu J, Aronow BJ, Potter SS, Gomez RA (2011) Genes that confer the identity of the renin cell. J Am Soc Nephrol 22:2213–2225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buhrle CP, Hackenthal E, Helmchen U, Lackner K, Nobiling R, Steinhausen M, Taugner R (1986) The hydronephrotic kidney of the mouse as a tool for intravital microscopy and in vitro electrophysiological studies of renin-containing cells. Lab Investig 54:462–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buhrle CP, Hackenthal E, Nobiling R, Skott O, Baumbach L, Taugner R (1987) Tachyphylaxis of juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells to angiotensin II. Differences between the electrical membrane response and renin secretion. Pflugers Arch 410:55–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buhrle CP, Scholz H, Hackenthal E, Nobiling R, Taugner R (1986) Epithelioid cells: membrane potential changes induced by substances influencing renin secretion. Mol Cell Endocrinol 45:37–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buhrle CP, Scholz H, Nobiling R, Taugner R (1986) Junctional transmission in renin-containing and smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole. Pflugers Arch 406:578–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carey RM, McGrath HE, Pentz ES, Gomez RA, Barrett PQ (1997) Biomechanical coupling in renin-releasing cells. J Clin Invest 100:1566–1574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Castellanos Rivera RM, Monteagudo MC, Pentz ES, Glenn ST, Gross KW, Carretero O, Sequeira-Lopez ML, Gomez RA (2011) Transcriptional regulator RBP-J regulates the number and plasticity of renin cells. Physiol Genomics 43:1021–1028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Castrop H, Hocherl K, Kurtz A, Schweda F, Todorov V, Wagner C (2010) Physiology of kidney renin. Physiol Rev 90:607–673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Castrop H, Schweda F, Mizel D, Huang Y, Briggs J, Kurtz A, Schnermann J (2004) Permissive role of nitric oxide in macula densa control of renin secretion. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 286:F848–F857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen L, Kim SM, Oppermann M, Faulhaber-Walter R, Huang Y, Mizel D, Chen M, Lopez ML, Weinstein LS, Gomez RA, Briggs JP, Schnermann J (2007) Regulation of renin in mice with Cre recombinase-mediated deletion of G protein Gsalpha in juxtaglomerular cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 292:F27–F37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen M, Schnermann J, Smart AM, Brosius FC, Killen PD, Briggs JP (1993) Cyclic AMP selectively increases renin mRNA stability in cultured juxtaglomerular granular cells. J Biol Chem 268:24138–24144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cheng HF, Wang JL, Zhang MZ, McKanna JA, Harris RC (2000) Role of p38 in the regulation of renal cortical cyclooxygenase-2 expression by extracellular chloride. J Clin Invest 106:681–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chiu YJ, Hu SH, Reid IA (1999) Inhibition of phosphodiesterase III with milrinone increases renin secretion in human subjects. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 290:16–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chiu N, Park I, Reid IA (1996) Stimulation of renin secretion by the phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor rolipram. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 276:1073–1077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chiu T, Reid IA (1996) Role of cyclic GMP-inhibitable phosphodiesterase and nitric oxide in the beta adrenoceptor control of renin secretion. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 278:793–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Crowley SD, Gurley SB, Oliverio MI, Pazmino AK, Griffiths R, Flannery PJ, Spurney RF, Kim HS, Smithies O, Le TH, Coffman TM (2005) Distinct roles for the kidney and systemic tissues in blood pressure regulation by the renin–angiotensin system. J Clin Invest 115:1092–1099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Della Bruna R, Kurtz A, Corvol P, Pinet F (1993) Renin mRNA quantification using polymerase chain reaction in cultured juxtaglomerular cells. Short-term effects of cAMP on renin mRNA and secretion. Circ Res 73:639–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Della Bruna R, Pinet F, Corvol P, Kurtz A (1992) Calmodulin antagonists stimulate renin secretion and inhibit renin synthesis in vitro. Am J Physiol 262:F397–F402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fishman MC (1976) Membrane potential of juxtaglomerular cells. Nature 260:542–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fordis CM, Megorden JS, Ropchak TG, Keiser HR (1983) Absence of renin-like activity in rat aorta and microvessels. Hypertension 5:635–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Frederiksen O, Leyssac PP, Skinner SL (1975) Sensitive osmometer function of juxtaglomerular cells in vitro. J Physiol 252:669–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Friberg P, Sundelin B, Bohman SO, Bobik A, Nilsson H, Wickman A, Gustafsson H, Petersen J, Adams MA (1994) Renin-angiotensin system in neonatal rats: induction of a renal abnormality in response to ACE inhibition or angiotensin II antagonism. Kidney Int 45:485–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Friis UG, Jensen BL, Aas JK, Skott O (1999) Direct demonstration of exocytosis and endocytosis in single mouse juxtaglomerular cells. Circ Res 84:929–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Friis UG, Jensen BL, Hansen PB, Andreasen D, Skott O (2000) Exocytosis and endocytosis in juxtaglomerular cells. Acta Physiol Scand 168:95–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Friis UG, Jensen BL, Sethi S, Andreasen D, Hansen PB, Skott O (2002) Control of renin secretion from rat juxtaglomerular cells by cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases. Circ Res 90:996–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Friis UG, Jorgensen F, Andreasen D, Jensen BL, Skott O (2003) Molecular and functional identification of cyclic AMP-sensitive BKCa potassium channels (ZERO variant) and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in single rat juxtaglomerular cells. Circ Res 93:213–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Friis UG, Madsen K, Svenningsen P, Hansen PB, Gulaveerasingam A, Jorgensen F, Aalkjaer C, Skott O, Jensen BL (2009) Hypotonicity-induced renin exocytosis from juxtaglomerular cells requires aquaporin-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. J Am Soc Nephrol 20:2154–2161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Friis UG, Stubbe J, Uhrenholt TR, Svenningsen P, Nusing RM, Skott O, Jensen BL (2005) Prostaglandin E2 EP2 and EP4 receptor activation mediates cAMP-dependent hyperpolarization and exocytosis of renin in juxtaglomerular cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 289:F989–F997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gambaryan S, Hausler C, Markert T, Pohler D, Jarchau T, Walter U, Haase W, Kurtz A, Lohmann SM (1996) Expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase in rat kidney is regulated by dehydration and correlated with renin gene expression. J Clin Invest 98:662–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gambaryan S, Wagner C, Smolenski A, Walter U, Poller W, Haase W, Kurtz A, Lohmann SM (1998) Endogenous or overexpressed cGMP-dependent protein kinases inhibit cAMP-dependent renin release from rat isolated perfused kidney, microdissected glomeruli, and isolated juxtaglomerular cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:9003–9008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Geary KM, Hunt MK, Peach MJ, Gomez RA, Carey RM (1992) Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, sodium depletion, calcium, isoproterenol, and angiotensin II on renin secretion by individual renocortical cells. Endocrinology 131:1588–1594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gomez RA, Lynch KR, Sturgill BC, Elwood JP, Chevalier RL, Carey RM, Peach MJ (1989) Distribution of renin mRNA and its protein in the developing kidney. Am J Physiol 257:F850–F858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gross KW, Gomez RA, Sigmund CD (2010) Twists and turns in the search for the elusive renin processing enzyme: focus on “cathepsin B is not the processing enzyme for mouse prorenin”. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 298:R1209–R1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hackenthal E, Paul M, Ganten D, Taugner R (1990) Morphology, physiology, and molecular biology of renin secretion. Physiol Rev 70:1067–1116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Harris RC, McKanna JA, Akai Y, Jacobson HR, Dubois RN, Breyer MD (1994) Cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with the macula densa of rat kidney and increases with salt restriction. J Clin Invest 94:2504–2510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    He XR, Greenberg SG, Briggs JP, Schnermann JB (1995) Effect of nitric oxide on renin secretion. II. Studies in the perfused juxtaglomerular apparatus. Am J Physiol 268:F953–F959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Henrich WL, McAllister EA, Smith PB, Campbell WB (1988) Guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate as a mediator of inhibition of renin release. Am J Physiol 255:F474–F478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Holmer SR, Kaissling B, Putnik K, Pfeifer M, Kramer BK, Riegger GA, Kurtz A (1997) Beta-adrenergic stimulation of renin expression in vivo. J Hypertens 15:1471–1479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Holmer S, Rinne B, Eckardt KU, Le Hir M, Schricker K, Kaissling B, Riegger G, Kurtz A (1994) Role of renal nerves for the expression of renin in adult rat kidney. Am J Physiol 266:F738–F745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hunt MK, Ramos SP, Geary KM, Norling LL, Peach MJ, Gomez RA, Carey RM (1992) Colocalization and release of angiotensin and renin in renal cortical cells. Am J Physiol 263:F363–F373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Itoh S, Carretero OA, Murray RD (1985) Possible role of adenosine in the macula densa mechanism of renin release in rabbits. J Clin Invest 76:1412–1417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jensen BL, Kurtz A (1997) Differential regulation of renal cyclooxygenase mRNA by dietary salt intake. Kidney Int 52:1242–1249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jensen BL, Rasch R, Nyengaard JR, Skott O (1997) Giant renin secretory granules in beige mouse renal afferent arterioles. Cell Tissue Res 288:399–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jensen BL, Schmid C, Kurtz A (1996) Prostaglandins stimulate renin secretion and renin mRNA in mouse renal juxtaglomerular cells. Am J Physiol 271:F659–F669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jensen BL, Skott O (1993) Osmotically sensitive renin release from permeabilized juxtaglomerular cells. Am J Physiol 265:F87–F95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kim SM, Chen L, Mizel D, Huang YG, Briggs JP, Schnermann J (2007) Low plasma renin and reduced renin secretory responses to acute stimuli in conscious COX-2-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 292:F415–F422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kim SM, Mizel D, Huang YG, Briggs JP, Schnermann J (2006) Adenosine as a mediator of macula densa-dependent inhibition of renin secretion. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290:F1016–F1023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kim SM, Theilig F, Qin Y, Cai T, Mizel D, Faulhaber-Walter R, Hirai H, Bachmann S, Briggs JP, Notkins AL, Schnermann J (2009) Dense-core vesicle proteins IA-2 and IA-2{beta} affect renin synthesis and secretion through the {beta}-adrenergic pathway. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296:F382–F389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kirchheim HR, Finke R, Hackenthal E, Lowe W, Persson P (1985) Baroreflex sympathetic activation increases threshold pressure for the pressure-dependent renin release in conscious dogs. Pflugers Arch 405:127–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kurtz A (2011) Renin release: sites, mechanisms, and control. Annu Rev Physiol 73:377–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kurtz A, Della Bruna R, Kuhn K (1988) Cyclosporine A enhances renin secretion and production in isolated juxtaglomerular cells. Kidney Int 33:947–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kurtz A, Della Bruna R, Pfeilschifter J, Bauer C (1988) Role of cGMP as second messenger of adenosine in the inhibition of renin release. Kidney Int 33:798–803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kurtz A, Della Bruna R, Pfeilschifter J, Taugner R, Bauer C (1986) Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits renin release from juxtaglomerular cells by a cGMP-mediated process. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83:4769–4773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kurtz A, Gotz KH, Hamann M, Wagner C (1998) Stimulation of renin secretion by nitric oxide is mediated by phosphodiesterase 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:4743–4747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kurtz L, Madsen K, Kurt B, Jensen BL, Walter S, Banas B, Wagner C, Kurtz A (2010) High-level connexin expression in the human juxtaglomerular apparatus. Nephron Physiol 116:p1–p8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kurtz A, Penner R (1989) Angiotensin II induces oscillations of intracellular calcium and blocks anomalous inward rectifying potassium current in mouse renal juxtaglomerular cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:3423–3427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kurtz A, Penner R (1990) Effects of angiotensin II on intracellular calcium and electrical function of mouse renal juxtaglomerular cells. Kidney Int Suppl 30:S51–S54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kurtz A, Pfeilschifter J, Bauer C (1984) Is renin secretion governed by the calcium permeability of the juxtaglomerular cell membrane? Biochem Biophys Res Commun 124:359–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kurtz A, Schweda F (2006) Osmolarity-induced renin secretion from kidneys: evidence for readily releasable renin pools. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290:F797–F805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kurtz L, Schweda F, de Wit C, Kriz W, Witzgall R, Warth R, Sauter A, Kurtz A, Wagner C (2007) Lack of connexin 40 causes displacement of renin-producing cells from afferent arterioles to the extraglomerular mesangium. J Am Soc Nephrol 18:1103–1111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lai EY, Wang Y, Persson AE, Manning RD Jr, Liu R (2011) Pressure induces intracellular calcium changes in juxtaglomerular cells in perfused afferent arterioles. Hypertens Res 34:942–948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Laske-Ernst J, Stehle A, Vallon V, Quast U, Russ U (2008) Effect of adenosine on membrane potential and Ca2+ in juxtaglomerular cells. Comparison with angiotensin II. Kidney Blood Press Res 31:94–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Leichtle A, Rauch U, Albinus M, Benohr P, Kalbacher H, Mack AF, Veh RW, Quast U, Russ U (2004) Electrophysiological and molecular characterization of the inward rectifier in juxtaglomerular cells from rat kidney. J Physiol 560:365–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lenz T, Sealey JE, Maack T, James GD, Heinrikson RL, Marion D, Laragh JH (1991) Half-life, hemodynamic, renal, and hormonal effects of prorenin in cynomolgus monkeys. Am J Physiol 260:R804–R810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Leyssac PP (1986) Changes in single nephron renin release are mediated by tubular fluid flow rate. Kidney Int 30:332–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lubkemeier I, Machura K, Kurtz L, Neubauer B, Dobrowolski R, Schweda F, Wagner C, Willecke K, Kurtz A (2011) The connexin 40 A96S mutation causes renin-dependent hypertension. J Am Soc Nephrol 22:1031–1040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Machura K, Neubauer B, Steppan D, Kettl R, Gross A, Kurtz A (2012) Role of blood pressure to mediate the influence of salt intake on renin expression in the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 302:F1278–F1285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Madsen K, Friis UG, Gooch JL, Hansen PB, Holmgaard L, Skott O, Jensen BL (2010) Inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase promotes exocytosis of renin from juxtaglomerular cells. Kidney Int 77:110–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Matsusaka T, Nishimura H, Utsunomiya H, Kakuchi J, Niimura F, Inagami T, Fogo A, Ichikawa I (1996) Chimeric mice carrying ‘regional’ targeted deletion of the angiotensin type 1A receptor gene. Evidence against the role for local angiotensin in the in vivo feedback regulation of renin synthesis in juxtaglomerular cells. J Clin Invest 98:1867–1877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Medrano S, Monteagudo MC, Sequeira-Lopez ML, Pentz ES, Gomez RA (2012) Two microRNAs, miR-330 and miR-125b-5p, mark the juxtaglomerular cell and balance its smooth muscle phenotype. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 302:F29–F37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mendez M, Gross KW, Glenn ST, Garvin JL, Carretero OA (2011) Vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP2) mediates cAMP-stimulated renin release in mouse juxtaglomerular cells. J Biol Chem 286:28608–28618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mercure C, Lacombe MJ, Khazaie K, Reudelhuber TL (2010) Cathepsin B is not the processing enzyme for mouse prorenin. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 298:R1212–R1216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mundel P, Bachmann S, Bader M, Fischer A, Kummer W, Mayer B, Kriz W (1992) Expression of nitric oxide synthase in kidney macula densa cells. Kidney Int 42:1017–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Neubauer B, Machura K, Chen M, Weinstein LS, Oppermann M, Sequeira-Lopez ML, Gomez RA, Schnermann J, Castrop H, Kurtz A, Wagner C (2009) Development of vascular renin expression in the kidney critically depends on the cyclic AMP pathway. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296:F1006–F1012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nielsen AH, Poulsen K (1988) Is prorenin of physiological and clinical significance? J Hypertens 6:949–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nusing RM, Treude A, Weissenberger C, Jensen B, Bek M, Wagner C, Narumiya S, Seyberth HW (2005) Dominant role of prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor in furosemide-induced salt-losing tubulopathy: a model for hyperprostaglandin E syndrome/antenatal Bartter syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol 16:2354–2362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ogawa K, Yamasato M, Taniguchi K (1995) Exocytosis of secretory granules in the juxtaglomerular granular cells of kidneys. Anat Rec 243:336–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ortiz-Capisano MC, Liao TD, Ortiz PA, Beierwaltes WH (2009) Calcium-dependent phosphodiesterase 1C inhibits renin release from isolated juxtaglomerular cells. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297:R1469–R1476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ortiz-Capisano MC, Ortiz PA, Harding P, Garvin JL, Beierwaltes WH (2007) Adenylyl cyclase isoform v mediates renin release from juxtaglomerular cells. Hypertension 49:618–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ortiz-Capisano MC, Ortiz PA, Harding P, Garvin JL, Beierwaltes WH (2007) Decreased intracellular calcium stimulates renin release via calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase. Hypertension 49:162–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Persson BE, Sakai T, Marsh DJ (1988) Juxtaglomerular interstitial hypertonicity in Amphiuma: tubular origin-TGF signal. Am J Physiol 254:F445–F449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Peti-Peterdi J, Fintha A, Fuson AL, Tousson A, Chow RH (2004) Real-time imaging of renin release in vitro. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 287:F329–F335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Peti-Peterdi J, Komlosi P, Fuson AL, Guan Y, Schneider A, Qi Z, Redha R, Rosivall L, Breyer MD, Bell PD (2003) Luminal NaCl delivery regulates basolateral PGE2 release from macula densa cells. J Clin Invest 112:76–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pratt RE, Flynn JA, Hobart PM, Paul M, Dzau VJ (1988) Different secretory pathways of renin from mouse cells transfected with the human renin gene. J Biol Chem 263:3137–3141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rasch R, Jensen BL, Nyengaard JR, Skott O (1998) Quantitative changes in rat renin secretory granules after acute and chronic stimulation of the renin system. Cell Tissue Res 292:563–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Reid IA (1999) Role of phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in the control of renin secretion: effects of selective enzyme inhibitors. Curr Pharm Des 5:725–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ritthaler T, Scholz H, Ackermann M, Riegger G, Kurtz A, Kramer BK (1995) Effects of endothelins on renin secretion from isolated mouse renal juxtaglomerular cells. Am J Physiol 268:F39–F45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sallstrom J, Jensen BL, Skott O, Gao X, Persson AE (2010) Neuronal nitric oxide synthase supports renin release during sodium restriction through inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3. Am J Hypertens 23:1241–1246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Salomonsson M, Skott O, Persson AE (1991) Influence of intraluminal arterial pressure on renin release. Acta Physiol Scand 141:285–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sandner P, Kornfeld M, Ruan X, Arendshorst WJ, Kurtz A (1999) Nitric oxide/cAMP interactions in the control of rat renal vascular resistance. Circ Res 84:186–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Schnermann J (1998) Juxtaglomerular cell complex in the regulation of renal salt excretion. Am J Physiol 274:R263–R279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Schnermann J, Weihprecht H, Briggs JP (1990) Inhibition of tubuloglomerular feedback during adenosine1 receptor blockade. Am J Physiol 258:F553–F561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Scholz H, Hamann M, Gotz KH, Kurtz A (1994) Role of calcium ions in the pressure control of renin secretion from the kidneys. Pflugers Arch 428:173–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Scholz H, Kurtz A (1992) Disparate effects of calcium channel blockers on pressure dependence of renin secretion and flow in the isolated perfused rat kidney. Pflugers Arch 421:155–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Scholz H, Kurtz A (1993) Involvement of endothelium-derived relaxing factor in the pressure control of renin secretion from isolated perfused kidney. J Clin Invest 91:1088–1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Scholz H, Kurtz A (1995) Differential regulation of cytosolic calcium between afferent arteriol ar smooth muscle cells from mouse kidney. Pflugers Arch 431:46–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schricker K, Della Bruna R, Kurtz A (1993) Extracellular calcium exerts a dual effect on renin secretion from isolated mouse juxtaglomerular cells. Pflugers Arch 423:14–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schricker K, Hamann M, Kurtz A (1995) Nitric oxide and prostaglandins are involved in the macula densa control of the renin system. Am J Physiol 269:F825–F830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schricker K, Hegyi I, Hamann M, Kaissling B, Kurtz A (1995) Tonic stimulation of renin gene expression by nitric oxide is counteracted by tonic inhibition through angiotensin II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:8006–8010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schricker K, Holmer S, Hamann M, Riegger G, Kurtz A (1994) Interrelation between renin mRNA levels, renin secretion, and blood pressure in two-kidney, one clip rats. Hypertension 24:157–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Schricker K, Kurtz A (1993) Liberators of NO exert a dual effect on renin secretion from isolated mouse renal juxtaglomerular cells. Am J Physiol 265:F180–F186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schricker K, Kurtz A (1996) Blockade of nitric oxide formation inhibits the stimulation of the renin system by a low salt intake. Pflugers Arch 432:187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Schricker K, Potzl B, Hamann M, Kurtz A (1996) Coordinate changes of renin and brain-type nitric-oxide-synthase (b-NOS) mRNA levels in rat kidneys. Pflugers Arch 432:394–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Schweda F, Klar J, Narumiya S, Nusing RM, Kurtz A (2004) Stimulation of renin release by prostaglandin E2 is mediated by EP2 and EP4 receptors in mouse kidneys. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 287:F427–F433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schweda F, Segerer F, Castrop H, Schnermann J, Kurtz A (2005) Blood pressure-dependent inhibition of Renin secretion requires A1 adenosine receptors. Hypertension 46:780–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Schweda F, Wagner C, Kramer BK, Schnermann J, Kurtz A (2003) Preserved macula densa-dependent renin secretion in A1 adenosine receptor knockout mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 284:F770–F777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sequeira Lopez ML, Pentz ES, Nomasa T, Smithies O, Gomez RA (2004) Renin cells are precursors for multiple cell types that switch to the renin phenotype when homeostasis is threatened. Dev Cell 6:719–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sequeira-Lopez ML, Weatherford ET, Borges GR, Monteagudo MC, Pentz ES, Harfe BD, Carretero O, Sigmund CD, Gomez RA (2010) The microRNA-processing enzyme dicer maintains juxtaglomerular cells. J Am Soc Nephrol 21:460–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Skinner SL, McCubbin JW, Page IH (1963) Renal baroceptor control of renin secretion. Science 141:814–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Skott O (1986) Episodic release of renin from single isolated superfused rat afferent arterioles. Pflugers Arch 407:41–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Skott O, Baumbach L (1985) Effects of adenosine on renin release from isolated rat glomeruli and kidney slices. Pflugers Arch 404:232–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Skott O, Briggs JP (1987) Direct demonstration of macula densa-mediated renin secretion. Science 237:1618–1620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Skott O, Taugner R (1987) Effects of extracellular osmolality on renin release and on the ultrastructure of the juxtaglomerular epithelioid cell granules. Cell Tissue Res 249:325–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Taugner R, Buhrle CP, Nobiling R (1984) Ultrastructural changes associated with renin secretion from the juxtaglomerular apparatus of mice. Cell Tissue Res 237:459–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Taugner R, Mannek E, Nobiling R, Buhrle CP, Hackenthal E, Ganten D, Inagami T, Schroder H (1984) Coexistence of renin and angiotensin II in epitheloid cell secretory granules of rat kidney. Histochemistry 81:39–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Taugner R, Metz R (1986) Development and fate of the secretory granules of juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells. Cell Tissue Res 246:595–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Taugner R, Whalley A, Angermuller S, Buhrle CP, Hackenthal E (1985) Are the renin-containing granules of juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells modified lysosomes? Cell Tissue Res 239:575–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Tobian L (1960) Physiology of the juxtaglomerular cells. Ann Intern Med 52:395–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Traynor TR, Smart A, Briggs JP, Schnermann J (1999) Inhibition of macula densa-stimulated renin secretion by pharmacological blockade of cyclooxygenase-2. Am J Physiol 277:F706–F710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Twu BM, Cannon ME, Hsu CH (1989) The role of osmolarity in renin release from afferent arterioles. J Hypertens 7:757–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Vander AJ, Miller R (1964) Control of renin secretion in the anesthetized dog. Am J Physiol 207:537–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Voskuil M, Verloop WL, Blankestijn PJ, Agostoni P, Stella PR, Doevendans PA (2011) Percutaneous renal denervation for the treatment of resistant essential hypertension; the first Dutch experience. Neth Heart J 19:319–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wagner C, de Wit C, Kurtz L, Grunberger C, Kurtz A, Schweda F (2007) Connexin40 is essential for the pressure control of renin synthesis and secretion. Circ Res 100:556–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Wagner C, Pfeifer A, Ruth P, Hofmann F, Kurtz A (1998) Role of cGMP-kinase II in the control of renin secretion and renin expression. J Clin Invest 102:1576–1582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Weihprecht H, Lorenz JN, Schnermann J, Skott O, Briggs JP (1990) Effect of adenosine1-receptor blockade on renin release from rabbit isolated perfused juxtaglomerular apparatus. J Clin Invest 85:1622–1628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wilcox CS, Peart WS (1987) Release of renin and angiotensin II into plasma and lymph during hyperchloremia. Am J Physiol 253:F734–F741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Xu D, Borges GR, Davis DR, Agassandian K, Sequeira Lopez ML, Gomez RA, Cassell MD, Grobe JL, Sigmund CD (2011) Neuron- or glial-specific ablation of secreted renin does not affect renal renin, baseline arterial pressure, or metabolism. Physiol Genomics 43:286–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Yang T, Endo Y, Huang YG, Smart A, Briggs JP, Schnermann J (2000) Renin expression in COX-2-knockout mice on normal or low-salt diets. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 279:F819–F825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Yang T, Park JM, Arend L, Huang Y, Topaloglu R, Pasumarthy A, Praetorius H, Spring K, Briggs JP, Schnermann J (2000) Low chloride stimulation of prostaglandin E2 release and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in a mouse macula densa cell line. J Biol Chem 275:37922–37929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Yang T, Singh I, Pham H, Sun D, Smart A, Schnermann JB, Briggs JP (1998) Regulation of cyclooxygenase expression in the kidney by dietary salt intake. Am J Physiol 274:F481–F489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Yi F, Zhang AY, Li N, Zhang F, Xia M, Li PL (2007) Role of cyclic ADP-ribose-Ca2+ signaling in mediating renin production and release in As4.1 cells. Cell Physiol Biochem 19:293–302PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulla G. Friis
    • 1
  • Kirsten Madsen
    • 1
  • Jane Stubbe
    • 1
  • Pernille B. L. Hansen
    • 1
  • Per Svenningsen
    • 1
  • Peter Bie
    • 1
  • Ole Skøtt
    • 1
  • Boye L. Jensen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular and Renal Research, Institute of Molecular MedicineUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdense CDenmark

Personalised recommendations