Waking with the hypothalamus

  • Helmut L. HaasEmail author
  • Jian-Sheng LinEmail author
Invited Review


An essential component of the whole-body homoeostasis provided by the hypothalamus is the management of available energy. This includes the regulation of sleeping and waking, feeding and drinking, body temperature and activity, as well as the endocrinium. The waking brain, in particular the cerebral cortex, needs to be activated through neuronal pathways ascending from the brainstem reticular formation (ascending reticular activating system, ARAS) and reaching the cortical structures by a dorsal route through the thalamus and a ventral route, including the hypothalamus and the basal forebrain. This review concentrates on the more recently explored ventral route and the hypothalamus with its different regions involved in the control of the waking state.


Cortical activation Circadian and homoeostatic regulation Histamine Orexin/hypocretin 



This work was supported by the European Community, QLRT-2001-00826 (H.L.H and J.-S.L.), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG SFB 575/3 (H.L.H.), and INSERM/UCBL-U628 (J.-S.L). We are grateful to C. Anaclet for contributing to the data presented in Fig. 3.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurophysiologyHeinrich Heine University DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Integrative Physiology of Brain Arousal Systems, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR 5292Claude Bernard University Lyon 1LyonFrance

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