Pflügers Archiv

, Volume 451, Issue 6, pp 803–813 | Cite as

Passive stretching produces Akt- and MAPK-dependent augmentations of GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscles of mice

  • Yoshihiko Ito
  • Kazuo Obara
  • Rikuko Ikeda
  • Megumi Ishii
  • Yoshiyuki Tanabe
  • Tomohisa Ishikawa
  • Koichi Nakayama
Skeletal Muscle


Muscle contraction is accompanied by passive stretching or deformation of cells and tissues. The present study aims to clarify whether or not acute passive stretching evokes glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscles of mice. Passive stretching mainly induced GLUT4 translocation from an intracellular membrane-rich fraction (PF5) to a plasma membrane-rich fraction (F2) and accelerated glucose uptake in hindlimb muscles; whereas electrical stimulation, which mimics physical exercise in vivo, and insulin, each induced GLUT4 translocation from an intracellular membrane-rich fraction (PF5) to a fraction rich in plasma membrane (F2), and to one rich in transverse tubules (PF3), along with subsequent glucose uptake. Mechanical stretching increased phosphorylation of Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), but it had no apparent effect on the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Electrical stimulation augmented the activity of not only AMPK but also phosphorylation of Akt and p38 MAPK. Our results suggest that passive stretching produces translocation of GLUT4 mainly from the fraction rich in intracellular membrane to that rich in plasma membrane, and that the glucose uptake could be Akt- and p38 MAPK-dependent, but AMPK-independent manners.


Akt AMPK Contraction Glucose uptake GLUT4 translocation Mechanical stretching P38 MAPK Skeletal muscle 



The present study was supported in part by grants-in-aid for scientific research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan, by grants from the Shizuoka Research and Development Foundation, and by The Nakatomi Foundation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihiko Ito
    • 1
  • Kazuo Obara
    • 1
  • Rikuko Ikeda
    • 1
  • Megumi Ishii
    • 1
  • Yoshiyuki Tanabe
    • 1
  • Tomohisa Ishikawa
    • 1
  • Koichi Nakayama
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of ShizuokaShizuoka CityJapan

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