Major injury induces increased production of interleukin-10 in human granulocyte fractions
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Patients with severe trauma or polytrauma frequently acquire alterations in immune functions which are correlated to dysbalanced cytokine synthesis. In these settings the role of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) as cytokine-producing cells is less well characterized. The immunosuppressive role of interleukin (IL)-10 is well known, and increased systemic IL-10 levels are related to the severity of injury and to posttraumatic complications. We determined concentrations of IL-10 in culture supernatants of 30 individual PMN fractions isolated from 18 severely traumatized patients (15 polytraumata, Injury Severity Score: 18–41, 3 severely burned patients) admitted to intensive care units. IL-10 was analyzed by ELISA (R&D Systems, Wiesbaden, Germany). PMN were isolated from EDTA-anticoagulated peripheral blood employing a one-step procedure based on a discontinuous double Ficoll gradient. The cells [1×106/ml RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and 25 mM N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine-N′-(2-ethanesulfonic acid] were stimulated with 0.05% heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus (Pansorbin, Calbiochem-Novabiochem, Bad Soden, Germany) for 24 h using cell culture conditions. Our results show that PMN fractions of traumatized patients produce significantly (P<0.008) higher amounts of IL-10 (354± 95 pg/ml, n = 30) than normal healthy donor cells (125± 95 pg/ml, n = 7). IL-10 release from PMN fractions exceeded the release from isolated patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells induced by similar stimulation or by stimulation with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (10 ng) and concanavalin A (2 μg). Our results provide evidence that PMN fractions play an active role in the development of posttraumatic immunosuppression by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, for example, by suppressing one's own antimicrobial activities or determining the development of T-cell responses via their ability to release IL-10.
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