Surgical therapy of adrenal tumors: guidelines from the German Association of Endocrine Surgeons (CAEK)

  • K. LorenzEmail author
  • P. Langer
  • B. Niederle
  • P. Alesina
  • K. Holzer
  • Ch. Nies
  • Th. Musholt
  • P. E. Goretzki
  • N. Rayes
  • M. Quinkler
  • J. Waldmann
  • D. Simon
  • A. Trupka
  • R. Ladurner
  • K. Hallfeldt
  • A. Zielke
  • D. Saeger
  • Th. Pöppel
  • G. Kukuk
  • A. Hötker
  • P. Schabram
  • S. Schopf
  • C. Dotzenrath
  • P. Riss
  • Th. Steinmüller
  • I. Kopp
  • C. Vorländer
  • M. K. Walz
  • D. K. Bartsch
Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis


Background and aims

Previous guidelines addressing surgery of adrenal tumors required actualization in adaption of developments in the area. The present guideline aims to provide practical and qualified recommendations on an evidence-based level reviewing the prevalent literature for the surgical therapy of adrenal tumors referring to patients of all age groups in operative medicine who require adrenal surgery. It primarily addresses general and visceral surgeons but offers information for all medical doctors related to conservative, ambulatory or inpatient care, rehabilitation, and general practice as well as pediatrics. It extends to interested patients to improve the knowledge and participation in the decision-making process regarding indications and methods of management of adrenal tumors. Furthermore, it provides effective medical options for the surgical treatment of adrenal lesions and balances positive and negative effects. Specific clinical questions addressed refer to indication, diagnostic procedures, effective therapeutic alternatives to surgery, type and extent of surgery, and postoperative management and follow-up regime.


A PubMed research using specific key words identified literature to be considered and was evaluated for evidence previous to a formal Delphi decision process that finalized consented recommendations in a multidisciplinary setting.


Overall, 12 general and 52 specific recommendations regarding surgery for adrenal tumors were generated and complementary comments provided.


Effective and balanced medical options for the surgical treatment of adrenal tumors are provided on evidence-base. Specific clinical questions regarding indication, diagnostic procedures, alternatives to and type as well as extent of surgery for adrenal tumors including postoperative management are addressed.


Adrenal surgery Guideline Conn syndrome Pheochromocytoma Adrenal Cushing disease 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Lorenz K: no disclosures

Langer P: no disclosures

Niederle B: no disclosures

Alesina P: no disclosures

Holzer, K: holds Bayer shares

Nies C: no disclosures

Musholt Th: no disclosures

Goretzki P: received consultant’s + speaker’s honorarium from: Sanofi, Ipsen, Novartis GmbH

Rayes N: no disclosures

Quinkler M: received speaker’s honorarium from: Shire plc GmbH, Ipsen GmbH

Waldmann J: no disclosures

Simon D: no disclosures

Trupka A: holds Bayer shares

Ladurner R: no disclosures

Hallfeldt K: no disclosures

Zielke A: no disclosures

Saeger W: received grants from: Ipsen, Novo-Nordisk, Novartis GmbH

Pöppel Th: no disclosures

Kukuk G: no disclosures

Hötker A: no disclosures

Schabram P: no disclosures

Schopf S: holds shares from ISAR-U GmbH

Dotzenrath C: no disclosures

Riss P: no disclosures

Steinmüller Th: no disclosures

Kopp I: no disclosures

Vorländer C: received grants from:Olympus GmbH

Walz M: received speaker’s honorarium from: Karl Storz GmbH, Medtronic Co.

Bartsch DK: received speaker’s honorarium from: Novartis

Ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Hartel W, Röher HD, Simon D, Frilling A, Rothmund M, Wagner PK, Klempa I, Goretzki PE, Becker HD, Niederle B, Nies C, Wahl RA, Dralle H (2000) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chirurgie, Leitlinien zur chirurgischen Therapie von Nebennierenerkrankungen. Mitteilung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie 4:G92Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Palazzo FF, Sebag F, Sierra M, Ippolito G, Souteyrand P, Henry JF (2006) Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors. World J Surg 30:893–898CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Walz MK, Petersenn S, Koch JA, Mann K, Neumann HP, Schmid KW (2005) Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours. Br J Surg 92:719–723CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tischler AS (2008) Pheochromocytoma and extra-adrenal paraganglioma: updates. Arch Pathol Lab Med 132:1272–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walz MK (2012) Minimally invasive adrenal gland surgery. Transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach? Chirurg 83:536–545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Asari R, Koperek O, Niederle B (2012) Endoscopic adrenalectomy in large adrenal tumors. Surgery 152:41–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gaujoux S, Mihai R (2017) European Society of Endocrine Surgeons (ESES) and European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENSAT) recommendations for the surgical management of adrenocortical carcinoma. Joint working group of ESES and ENSAT. Br J Surg 104:358–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boland GW, Lee MJ, Gazelle GS, Halpern EF, McNicholas MM, Mueller PR (1998) Characterization of adrenal masses using unenhanced CT: an analysis of the CT literature. Am J Roentgenol 171:201–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Israel GM, Korobkin M, Wang C, Hecht EN, Krinsky GA (2004) Comparison of unenhanced CT and chemical shift MRI in evaluating lipid-rich adrenal adenomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol 183:215–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brix D, Allolio B, Fenske W, Agha A, Dralle H, Jurowich C, Langer P, Mussack T, Nies C, Riedmiller H, Spahn M, Weismann D, Hahner S, Fassnacht M, German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry Group (2010) Laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma: surgical and oncologic outcome in 152 patients. Eur Urol 58:609–615CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, De Crea C, Boniardi M, De Toma G, Marzano LA, Miccoli P, Minni F, Morino M, Pelizzo MR, Pietrabissa A, Renda A, Valeri A, Bellantone R (2012) Open versus endoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of localized (stage I/II) adrenocortical carcinoma: results of a multiinstitutional Italian survey. Surgery 152:1158–1164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brauckhoff M, Gimm O, Thanh PN, Bär A, Ukkat J, Brauckhoff K, Bönsch T, Dralle H (2003) Critical size of residual adrenal tissue and recovery from impaired early postoperative adrenocortical function after subtotal bilateral adrenalectomy. Surgery 134:1020–1028CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alesina PF, Hinrichs J, Meier B, Schmid KW, Neumann HP, Walz MK (2012) Minimally invasive cortical-sparing surgery for bilateral pheochromocytomas. Langenbeck's Arch Surg 397:233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Walz MK (2009) Adrenalectomy for preservation of adrenocortical function. Indication and results. Chirurg 80:99–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alesina PF, Hommeltenberg S, Meier B, Petersenn S, Lahner H, Schmid KW, Mann K, Walz MK (2010) Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for clinical and subclinical Cushing’s syndrome. World J Surg 34:1391–1397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Telenius-Berg M, Ponder MA, Berg B, Ponder BA, Werner S (1989) Quality of life after bilateral adrenalectomy in MEN 2. Henry Ford Hosp Med J 37:160–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lairmore TC, Ball DW, Baylin SB, Wells SA Jr (1993) Management of pheochromocytomas in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndromes. Ann Surg 217:595–601CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Erlic Z, Rybicki L, Peczkowska M, Golcher H, Kann PH, Brauckhoff M, Mussig K, Muresan M, Schaffler A, Reisch N, Schott M, Fassnacht M, Opocher G, Klose S, Fottner C, Forrer F, Plockinger U, Petersenn S, Zabolotny D, Kollukch O, Yaremchuk S, Januszewicz A, Walz MK, Eng C, Neumann HP, European-American Pheochromocytoma Study Group (2009) Clinical predictors and algorithm for the genetic diagnosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Clin Cancer Res 15:6378–6385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lowery AJ, Seeliger B, Alesina PF, Walz MK (2017) Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for clinical and subclinical Cushing’s syndrome in patients with bilateral adrenal disease. Langenbeck's Arch Surg 402:775–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Petersenn S, Beckers A, Ferone D, Van der Lely AJ, Bollerslev J, Boscaro M, Brue T, Bruzzi P, Casanueva FF, Chanson P (2015) Therapy of endocrine disease: outcomes in patients with Cushing’s disease undergoing transsphenoidal surgery: systematic review assessing criteria used to define remission and recurrence. Eur J Endocrinol 172:R227–R239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ritzel K, Beuschlein F, Mickisch A, Osswald A, Schneider HJ, Schopohl J, Reincke M (2013) Clinical review: outcome of bilateral adrenalectomy in Cushing’s syndrome: a systematic review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:3939–3948CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sancho JJ, Triponez F, Montet X, Sitges-Serra A (2012) Surgical management of adrenal metastases. Langenbeck's Arch Surg 97:179–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vazquez BJ, Richards ML, Lohse CM, Thompson GB, Farley DR, Grant CS, Huebner M, Moreno J (2012) Adrenalectomy improves outcomes of selected patients with metastatic carcinoma. World J Surg 36:1400–1405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bradley CT, Strong VE (2014) Surgical management of adrenal metastases. J Surg Oncol 109:31–35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Welch BT, Callstrom MR, Carpenter PC, Wass CT, Welch TL, Boorjian SA, Nichols DA, Thompson GB, Lohse CM, Erickson D, Leibovich BC, Atwell TD (2014) A single-institution experience in image-guided thermal ablation of adrenal gland metastases. J Vasc Interv Radiol 25:593–598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hiramatsu K, Yamada T, Yukimura Y, Komiya I, Ichikawa K, Ishihara M, Nagata H, Izumiyama T (1981) A screening test to identify aldosterone-producing adenoma by measuring plasma renin activity. Arch Intern Med 141:1589–1593CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gordon RD, Stowasser M, Rutherfort JC (2001) Primary aldosteronism: are we diagnosing and operating on too few patients? World J Surg 25:941–947CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Namba K, Tamanaha T, Nakao K, Kawashima ST, Usui T, Tagami T, Okuno H, Shimatsu A, Suzuki T, Naruse M (2012) Confirmatory testing in primary aldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:1688–1694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Funder JW, Carey RM, Fardella C, Gomez-Sanchez CE, Mantero F, Stowasser M, Young WF Jr, Montori VM (2008) Case detection, diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary aldosteronism: an Endocrine Society Clinical practise Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:3266–3328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Waldmann J, Bartsch DK, Kann PH, Fendrich V, Rothmund M, Langer P (2007) Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening. Langenbeck's Arch Surg 387:437–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Agha A, Hornung M, Iesalnieks I, Schreyer A, Jung EM, Haneya A, Schlitt HJ (2014) Predictors of malignancy in primary aldosteronism. Langenbeck's Arch Surg 399:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rossi GP, Barisa M, Allolio B, Auchus RJ, Amar L, Cohen D, Degenhart C, Deinum J, Fischer E, Gordon R, Kickuth R, Kline G, Lacroix A, Magill S, Miotto D, Naruse M, Nishikawa T, Omura M, Pimenta E, Plouin PF, Quinkler M, Reincke M, Rossi E, Rump LC, Satoh F, Schultze Kool L, Seccia TM, Stowasser M, Tanabe A, Trerotola S, Vonend O, Widimsky J Jr, Wu KD, Wu VC, Pessina AC (2012) The adrenal vein sampling international study AVIS for identifying the major subtypes of primary aldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:1606–1614CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Young WF, Stanson AW, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Farley DR, van Heerden JA (2004) Role for adrenal venous sampling in primary aldosteronism. Surgery 136:1227–1235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lim V, Guo Q, Grant CS, Thompson GB, Richards ML, Farley DR, Young WF Jr (2014) Accuracy of adrenal imaging an adrenal venous sampling in predicting surgical cure of primary aldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:2712–2719CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tan YY, Ogilvie JB, Triponez F, Caron NR, Kebebew EK, Clark OH, Duh QY (2006) Selective use of adrenal venous sampling in the lateralization of aldosterone-producing adenomas. World J Surg 30:879–887CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Oh EM, Lee KE, Yoon K, Kim SY, Kim HC, Youn YK (2012) Value of adrenal venous sampling for lesion localization in primary aldosteronism. World J Surg 36:2522–2527CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pirvu A, Naem N, Baguet JP, Thony F, Chabre O, Chaffanjon P (2014) Is adrenal venous sampling mandatory before surgical decision in case of primary hyperaldosteronism? World J Surg 38:1749–1754CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Volpe C, Enberg U, Sjögren A, Wahrenberg H, Jacobsson H, Törring O, Hamberger B, Thorén M (2008) The role of adrenal scintigraphy in the preoperative management of primary aldosteronism. Scand J Surg 97:248–253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Carter Y, Roy M, Sippel RS, Chen H (2012) Persistent hypertension after adrenalectomy for an aldosteron-producing adenoma: weight as a critical prognostic factor for aldosterone’s lasting effect on the cardiac and vascular systems. J Surg Res 177:241–247CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Van der Linden P, Streichen O, Zinzindohoue F, Plouin PF (2012) Blood pressure and medication changes following adrenalectomy for unilateral aldosteronism: a follow-up study. J Hypertens 30:761–769CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wang W, Hu W, Zhang X, Wang B, Bin C, Huang H (2012) Predictors of successful outcome after adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism. Int Surg 97:104–111CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Strauch B, Petrak O, Zelinka T, Wichterle D, Holaj R, Kasalicky M, Safarik L, Rosa J, Widimsky J Jr (2008) Adrenalectoy improves arterial stiffness in primary aldosteronism. Am J Hypertens 21:1086–1092CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lin YH, Wu XM, Lee HH, Lee JK, Liu YC, Chang HW, Lin CY, Wu VC, Chueh SC, Lin LC, Lo MT, Ho YL, Wu KD, TAIPAI Study Group (2012) Adrenalectomy reverses myocardial fibrosis in patients with primary aldosteronism. J Hypertens 30:1606–1613CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tsuchiya K, Yoshimoto T, Hirata Y (2009) Endothelial dysfunction is related to aldosterone excess and raised blood pressure. Endocr J 56:553–559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Magill SB, Raff H, Shaker JL, Brickner RC, Knechtges TE, Kehoe ME, Findling JW (2001) Comparison of adrenal vein sampling and computed tomography in the differentiation of primary aldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1066–1071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Steichen O, Zinzindohoué F, Plouin PF, Amar L (2012) Outcomes of adrenalectomy in patients with unilateral primary aldosteronism: a review. Horm Metab Res 44:221–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Walz MK, Gwosdz R, Levin SL, Alesina PF, Suttorp AC, Metz KA, Wenger FA, Petersenn S, Mann K, Schmid KW (2008) Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy in Conn’s syndrome caused by adrenal adenomas or nodular hyperplasia. World J Surg 32:847–853CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ishidoya S, Ito A, Sakai K (2005) Laparoscopic partial versus total adrenalectomy for aldosterone producing adenoma. J Urol 174:40–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chen SF, Chueh SC, Wang SM, Wu VC, Pu YS, Wu KD, Huang KH (2014) Clinical outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for unilateral aldosterone producing adenoma: partial versus total adrenalectomy. J Endourol 28:1103–1106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fu B, Zhang X, Wang GX, Lang B, Ma X, Li HZ, Wang BJ, Shi TP, Ai X, Zhou HX, Zheng T (2011) Long-term results of a prospective, randomized trial comparing retroperitoneoscopic partial versus total adrenalectomy for aldosterone producing adenoma. J Urol 185:1578–1582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nieman LK, Biller BM, Findling JW, Murad MH, Newell-Price J, Savage MO, Tabarin A. Endocrine Society (2015) Treatment of Cushing’s syndrome: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100:2807–2831CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Arnaldi G, Trementino L (2016) Update on hypercortisolism therapy. Front Horm Res 46:87–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Buliman A, Tataranu LG, Paun DL, Mirica A, Dumitrache C (2016) Cushing’s disease: a multidisciplinary overview of the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. J Med Life 9:12–18PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Young WF Jr, du Plessis H, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Farley DR, Richards ML, Erickson D, Vella A, Stanson AW, Carney JA, Abboud CF, Carpenter PC (2008) The clinical conundrum of corticotropin-independent autonomous cortisol secretion in patients with bilateral adrenal masses. World J Surg 32:856–862CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Reincke M, Ritzel K, Oßwald A, Berr C, Stalla G, Hallfeldt K, Reisch N, Schopohl J, Beuschlein F (2015) A critical reappraisal of bilateral adrenalectomy for ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol 173:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Seki T, Yasuda A, Kitajima N, Oki M, Takagi A, Nakamura N, Hanai K, Terachi T, Fukagawa M (2015) Adrenal venous sampling is useful for a definitive diagnosis in Cushing’s syndrome with bilateral adrenal tumors. Tokai J Exp Clin 40:149–156Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lack EE (2007) Tumors of the adrenal glands and the extraadrenal paraganglia. AFIP Atlas of tumor pathology. American Registry of Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, pp 1–500Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gaujoux S, Brennan MF (2012) Recommendation for standardized surgical management of primary adrenocortical carcinoma. Surgery 152:123–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Else T, Kim AC, Sabolch A, Raymond VM, Kandathil A, Caoili EM, Jolly S, Miller BS, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD (2014) Adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Rev 35:282–326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Stigliano A, Chiodini I, Giordano R, Faggiano A, Canu L, Della Casa S, Loli P, Luconi M, Mantero F, Terzolo M (2016) Management of adrenocortical carcinoma: a consensus statement of the Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE). J Endocrinol Invest 39:103–121Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Eisenhofer G, Keiser H, Friberg P, Mezey E, Huynh TT, Hiremagalur B, Ellingson T, Duddempudi S, Eijsbouts A, Lenders JW (1998) Plasma metanephrines are markers of pheochromocytoma produced by catechol-O methyltransferase within tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:2175–2185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sawka AM, Jaeschke R, Singh RJ, Young WF (2003) A comparison of biochemical tests for pheochromocytoma: measurement of fractionated plasma metanephrines compared with the combination of 24-hour urinary metanephrines and catecholamines. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:553–558CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Osinga TE, van der Horst-Schrivers AN, van Faassen M, Kerstens MN, Dullart RP, Pacak K, Links TP, Kema IP (2016) Mass spectrometic quantification of salivary metanephrines-a study in healthy subjects. Clin Biochem 49:983–938CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Eisenhofer G, Goldstein DS, Walther MM, Friberg P, Lenders JW, Keiser HR, Pacak K (2003) Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma:how to distinguish true- from false positive test results. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2656–2666CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Därr R, Lenders JW, Stange K, Kindel B, Hofbauer LC, Bornstein SR, Eisenhofer G (2013) Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: the clonidine suppression test in patients with borderline elevations of plasma free normetanephrine. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 138:76–81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Neary NM, King KS, Pacak K (2011) Drugs and pheochromocytoma—don’t be fooled by every elevated metanephrine. N Engl J Med 364:2268–2270CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Motta-Ramirez GA, Remer EM, Herts BR, Gill IS, Hamrahian AH (2005) Comparison of CT findings in symptomatic and incidentally discovered pheochromocytomas. Am J Roentgenol 185:684–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Blake MA, Krishnamoorthy SK, Boland GW, Sweeney AT, Pitman MB, Harisinghani M, Mueller PR, Hahn PF (2003) Low-density pheochromocytoma on CT: a mimicker of adrenal adenoma. Am J Roentgenol 181:1663–1668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sahdev A, Sohaib A, Monson JP, Grossman AB, Chew SL, Reznek RH (2005) CT and MR imaging of unusual locations of extra-adrenal paragangliomas (pheochromocytomas). Eur Radiol 15:85–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Van Berkel A, Pacak K, Lenders JWM (2014) Should every patient diagnosed with a pheochromocytoma have a 123I-MIBG scintigraphy? Clin Endocrinol 81:329–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lenders JW, Duh QY, Eisenhofer G, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Grebe SK, Murad MH, Naruse M, Pacak K, Young WF (2014) Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:1915–1942CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Shulkin BL, Thompson NW, Shapiro B, Francis IR, Sisson JC (1999) Pheochromocytomas: imaging with 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET. Radiology 212:35–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mann GN, Link JM, Pham P, Pickett CA, Byrd DR, Kinahan PE, Krohn KA, Mankoff DA (2006) [11C]metahydroxyephedrine and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography improve clinical decision making in suspected pheochromocytoma. Ann Surg Oncol 13:187–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Timmers HJ, Eisenhofer G, Carrasquillo JA, Chen CC, Whatley M, Ling A, Adams KT, Pacak K (2009) Use of 6-[18F]-fluorodopamine positron emission tomography (PET) as first-line investigation for the diagnosis and localization of non-metastatic and metastatic phaeochromocytoma (PHEO). Clin Endocrinol 71:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pacak K, Eisenhofer G, Ahlman H, Bornstein SR, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Grossman AB, Kimura N, Mannelli M, McNicol AM, Tischler AS (2007) Pheochromocytoma: recommendations for clinical practice from the First International Symposium. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3:92–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ellis RJ, Patel D, Prodanov T, Sadowski S, Nilubol N, Adams K, Steinberg SM, Pacak K, Kebebew E (2013) Response after surgical resection of metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: can postoperative biochemical remission be predicted? J Am Coll Surg 217:489–496CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Stefanidis D, Goldfarb M, Kercher KW, Hope WW, Richardson W, Fanelli RD (2013) SAGES guidelines for minimally invasive treatment of adrenal pathology. Surg Endosc 27:3960–3980CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Walz MK, Peitgen K, Neumann HP, Janssen OE, Philipp T, Mann K (2002) Endoscopic treatment of solitary, bilateral, multiple, and recurrent pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. World J Surg 26:1005–1012CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Brunt LM, Lairmore TC, Doherty GM, Quasebarth MA, DeBenedetti M, Moley JF (2002) Adrenalectomy for familial pheochromocytoma in the laparoscopic era. Ann Surg 235:713–720CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Yip L, Lee JE, Shapiro SE, Waguespack SG, Sherman SI, Hoff AO, Gagel RF, Arens JF, Evans DB (2004) Surgical management of hereditary pheochromocytoma. J Am Coll Surg 198:525–534CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Young WF (2007) The incidentally discovered adrenal mass. N Engl J Med 356:601–610CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Reincke M, Slawick M Adrenal incidentalomas. In: De Groot LJ, Beck-Peccoz P, Chrousos G, Dungan K, Grossman A, Hershman JM, Koch C, McLachlan R, New M, Rebar R, Singer F, Vinik A, Weickert MO (eds) Endotext [Internet]., Inc., South Dartmouth, pp 2000–2010Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Terzolo M, Stigliano A, Chiodini I, Loli P, Furlani L, Arnaldi G, Reimondo G, Pia A, Toscano V, Zini M, Borretta G, Papini E, Garofalo P, Allolio B, Dupas B, Mantero F, Tabarin A (2011) Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AME) position statement on adrenal incidentaloma. Eur J Endocrinol 164:851–870CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Petersenn S, Richter PA, Broemel T, Ritter CO, Deutschbein T, Beil FU, Allolio B, Fassnacht M, German ACC Study Group (2015) Computed tomography criteria for discrimination of adrenal adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas: analysis of the German ACC registry. Eur J Endocrinol 172:415–422CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fassnacht M, Arlt W, Bancos I, Dralle H, Newell-Price J, Sahdev A, Tabarin A, Terzolo M, Tsagarakis S, Dekkers OM (2016) Management of adrenal incidentalomas: European Society of Endocrinology clinical practice guideline in collaboration with the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors. Eur J Endocrinol 175:G1–G34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kapoor A, Morrios T, Rebello R (2011) Guidelines for the managemnet of the incidentally discovered adrenal mass. Can Urol Assoc J 5:241–247CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Grumbach MM, Biller BM, Braunstein GD, Campbell KK, Carney JA, Godley PA, Harris EL, Lee JK, Oertel YC, Posner MC, Schlechte JA, Wieand HS (2003) Management of the clinically inapparent adrenal mass (“incidentaloma”). Ann Intern Med 138:424–429CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fernández-Cruz L, Sáenz A, Benarroch G, Sabater L, Taurá P (1996) Does hormonal function of the tumor influence the outcome of laparoscopic adrenalectomy? Surg Endosc 10:1088–1091CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Shen WT, Lim RC, Siperstein AE, Clark OH, Schecter WP, Hunt TK, Horn JK, Duh QY (1999) Laparoscopic vs open adrenalectomy for the treatment of primary hyperaldosteronism. Arch Surg:134628–134631Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Natkaniec M, Pędziwiatr M, Wierdak M (2016) Laparoscopic transperitoneal lateral adrenalectomy for large adrenal tumors. Urol Int 97:165–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Arlt W, Biehl M, Taylor AE, Hahner S, Libé R, Hughes BA, Schneider P, Smith DJ, Stiekema H, Krone N, Porfiri E, Opocher G, Bertherat J, Mantero F, Allolio B, Terzolo M, Nightingale P, Shackleton CH, Bertagna X, Fassnacht M, Stewart PM (2011) Urine steroid metabolomics as a biomarker tool for detecting malignancy in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:3775–3784CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zhang HM, Perrier ND, Grubbs EG, Sircar K, Ye ZX, Lee JE, Ng CS (2012) CT features and quantification of the characteristics of adrenocortical carcinomas on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced studies. Clin Radiol 67:38–46CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Young WF Jr (2011) Conventional imaging in adrenocortical carcinoma: update and perspectives. Horm Cancer 2:341–347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bharwani N, Rockall AG, Sahdev A, Gueorguiev M, Drake W, Grossman AB, Reznek RH (2011) Adrenocortical carcinoma: the range of appearances on CT and MRI. Am J Roentgenol 196:706–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Berutti A, Baudin E, Gelderblum H, Haak HR, Porpiglia F, Fassnacht M, Pentheroudakis G (2012) Adrenal Cancer: ESMO Clincal Practice Guideline for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol 23(Suppl 7):131–138Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Reibetanz J, Jurowich C, Erdogan I, Nies C, Rayes N, Dralle H, Behrend M, Allolio B, Fassnacht M, German ACC Study Group (2012) Impact of lymphadenectomy on the oncologic outcome of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Ann Surg 255:363–369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Freire DS, Siqueira SA, Zerbini MC, Wajchenberg BL, Corrêa-Giannella ML, Lucon AM, Pereira MA (2013) Development and internal validation of an adrenal cortical carcinoma prognostic score for predicting the risk of metastasis and local recurrence. Clin Endocrinol 79:468–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gratian L, Pura J, Dinan M, Reed S, Scheri R, Roman S, Sosa JA (2014) Treatment patterns and outcomes for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma associated with hospital case volume in the United States. Ann Surg Oncol 213:509–514Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Miller BS, Gauger PG, Hammer GD, Doherty GM (2012) Resection of adrenocortical carcinoma is less complete and local recurrence occurs sooner and more often after laparoscopic adrenalectomy than after open adrenalectomy. Surgery 152:1150–1157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Porpiglia F, Fiori C, Daffara FC, Zaggia B, Ardito A, Scarpa RM, Papotti M, Berruti A, Scagliotti GV, Terzolo M (2016) Does nephrectomy during radical adrenalectomy for stage II adrenocortical cancer affect patient outcome? J Endocrinol Investig 39:465–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Turbendian HK, Strong VE, Hsu M, Ghossein RA, Fahey TJ 3rd (2010) Adrenocortical carcinoma: the influence of large vessel extension. Surgery 148:1057–1064CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mihai R, Iacobone M, Makay O, Moreno P, Frilling A, Kraimps JL, Soriano A, Villar del Moral J, Barczynski M, Durán MC, Sadler GP, Niederle B, Dralle H, Harrison B, Carnaille B (2012) Outcome of operation in patients with adrenocortical cancer invading the inferior vena cava-a European Society of Endocrine Surgeons (ESES) survey. Langenbeck's Arch Surg 397:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Fassnacht M, Kroiss M, Allolio B (2013) Update in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:4551–4564CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Saade N, Sadler C, Goldfarb M (2015) Impact of regional lymph node dissection on disease specific survival in adrenal cortical carcinoma. Horm Metab Res 47:820–825CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mihai R (2015) Diagnosis, treatment and outcome of adrenocortical cancer. Br J Surg 102:291–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nilubol N, Patel D, Kebebew E (2016) Does lymphadenectomy improve survival in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma? A population-based study. World J Surg 40:697–705CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bilimoria KY, Shen WT, Elaraj D, Bentrem DJ, Winchester DJ, Kebebew E, Sturgeon C (2008) Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors. Cancer 113:3130–3136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Icard P, Goudet P, Charpenay C, Andreassian B, Carnaille B, Chapuis Y, Cougard P, Henry JF, Proye C (2001) Adrenocortical carcinomas: surgical trends and results of a 253-patient series from the French Association of Endocrine Surgeons study group. World J Surg 25:891–897CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Polat B, Fassnacht M, Pfreundner L, Guckenberger M, Bratengeier K, Johanssen S, Kenn W, Hahner S, Allolio B, Flentje M (2009) Radiotherapy in adrenocortical carcinoma. Cancer 115:2816–2823CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bednarski BK, Habra MA, Phan A, Milton DR, Wood C, Vauthey N, Evans DB, Katz MH, Ng CS, Perrier ND, Lee JE, Grubbs EG (2014) Borderline resectable adrenal cortical carcinoma: a potential role for preoperative chemotherapy. World J Surg 38:1318–1327CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Bellantone R, Ferrante A, Boscherini M, Lombardi CP, Crucitti P, Crucitti F, Favia G, Borrelli D, Boffi L, Capussotti L, Carbone G, Casaccia M, Cavallaro A, Del Gaudio A, Dettori G, Di Giovanni V, Mazziotti A, Marrano D, Masenti E, Miccoli P, Mosca F, Mussa A, Petronio R, Piat G, Ruberti U, Serio G, Marzano L (1997) Role of reoperation in recurrence of adrenal cortical carcinoma: results from 188 cases collected in the Italian National Registry for Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma. Surgery 122:1212–1218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Polat B, Koschker AC, Kenn W, Flentje M, Allolio B (2006) Efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy of the tumor bed on local recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:4501–4504CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kemp CD, Ripley RT, Mathur A, Steinberg SM, Nguyen DM, Fojo T, Schrump DS (2011) Pulmonary resection for metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: the National Cancer Institute experience. Ann Thorac Surg 92:1195–1200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ripley RT, Kemp CD, Davis JL, Langan RC, Royal RE, Libutti SK, Steinberg SM, Wood BJ, Kammula US, Fojo T, Avital I (2011) Liver resection and ablation for metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol 18:1972–1979CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kerkhofs TM, Verhoeven RH, Bonjer HJ, van Dijkum EJ, Vriens MR, De Vries J, Van Eijck CH, Bonsing BA, Van de Poll-Franse LV, Haak HR, Dutch Adrenal Network (2013) Surgery for adrenocortical carcinoma in The Netherlands: analysis of the national cancer registry data. Eur J Endocrinol 169:83–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Dy BM, Wise KB, Richards ML, Young WF, Grant CS, Bible KC, Rosedahl J, Harmsen WS, Farley DR, Thompson GB (2013) Operative intervention for recurrent adrenocortical cancer. Surgery 154:1292–1299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Erdogan I, Deutschbein T, Jurowich C, Kroiss M, Ronchi C, Quinkler M, Waldmann J, Willenberg HS, Beuschlein F, Fottner C, Klose S, Heidemeier A, Brix D, Fenske W, Hahner S, Reibetanz J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M, German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Study Group (2013) The role of surgery in the management of recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:181–191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Schteingart DE, Doherty GM, Gauger PG, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD, Korobkin M, Worden FP (2005) Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference. Endocr Relat Cancer 12:667–680CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hero B, Berthold F (2011) Neuroblastom. Leitlinie der Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie. AWMF-Register Nr. 025/008 onlineGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Shawa H, Elsayes KM, Javadi S, Morani A, Williams MD, Lee JE, Waguespack SG, Busaidy NL, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Jimenez C, Habra MA (2014) Adrenal ganglioneuroma: features and outcomes of 27 cases at a referral cancer centre. Clin Endocrinol 80:342–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Patel VG, Babalola OA, Fortson JK, Weaver WL (2006) Adrenal myelolipoma: a report of a case and review of the literature. Am Surg 72:649–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Uberoi J, Munver R (2009) Surgical management of metastases to the adrenal gland: open, laparoscopic, and ablative approaches. Curr Urol Rep 10:67–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lenert JT, Barnett CC Jr, Kudelka AP, Sellin RV, Gagel RF, Prieto VG, Skibber JM, Ross MI, Pisters PW, Curley SA, Evans DB, Lee JE (2001) Evaluation and surgical resection of adrenal masses in patients with a history of extra-adrenal malignancy. Surgery 130:1060–1067CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lumb G, Mackenzie DH (1959) The incidence of metastases in adrenal glands and ovaries removed for carcinoma of the breast. Cancer 12:521–526CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Korobkin M, Giordano TJ, Brodeur FJ, Francis IR, Siegelman ES, Quint LE, Dunnick NR, Heiken JP, Wang HH (1996) Adrenal adenomas: relationship between histologic lipid and CT and MR findings. Radiology 200:743–747CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Caoili EM, Korobkin M, Francis IR, Cohan RH, Platt JF, Dun-nick NR, Raghupathi KI (2002) Adrenal masses: characterization with combined unenhanced and delayed enhanced CT. Radiology 222:629–633CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Haider MA, Ghai S, Jhaveri K, Lockwood G (2004) Chemical shift MR imaging of hyperattenuating (>10 HU) adrenal masses: does it still have a role? Radiology 231:711–716CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Song JH, Chaudhry FS, Mayo-Smith WW (2008) The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy. Am J Roentgenol 190:1163–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Pfannschmidt J, Schlolaut B, Muley T, Hoffmann H, Dienemann H (2005) Adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 49:203–207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Mercier O, Fadel E, de Perrot M, Mussot S, Stella F, Chapelier A, Dartevelle P (2005) Surgical treatment of solitary adrenal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 130:136–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Muth A, Persson F, Jansson S, Johanson V, Ahlman H, Wangberg B (2010) Prognostic factors for survival after surgery for adrenal metastasis. Eur J Surg Oncol 36:699–704CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Young WF Jr (2003) Primary aldosteronism—changing concepts in diagnosis and treatment. Endocrinology 144:2208–2213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Funder JW, Carey RM, Matero F, Murad MH, Reincke M, Shibata H, Stowasser M, Young WF (2016) Guidelines on primary aldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 101:1889–1916CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sawka AM, Young WF, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Farley DR, Leibson C, van Heerden JA (2001) Primary aldosteronism: factors associated with normalization of blood pressure after surgery. Ann Intern Med 135:258–226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Harris DA, Au-Yong I, Basnyat PS, Sadler GP, Wheeler MH (2003) Review of surgical management of aldosterone secreting tumours of the adrenal cortex. Eur J Surg Oncol 29:467–474CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Lim PO, Young WF, MacDonald TM (2001) A review of the medical treatment of primary aldosteronism. J Hypertens 19:353–361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Montori VM, Young WF (2002) Use of plasma aldosterone concentration-to-plasma renin activity ratio as a screening test for primary aldosteronism: a systematic review of the literature. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 31:619–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Parthasarathy HK, Ménard J, White WB, Young WF, Williams GH, Williams B, Ruilope LM, McInnes GT, Connell JM, MacDonald TM (2011) A double-blind, randomized study comparing the antihypertensive effect of eplerenone and spironolactone in patients with hypertension and evidence of primary aldosteronism. J Hypertens 29:980–990CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Karagiannis A, Tziomalos K, Papageorgiou A, Kakafika AI, Pagourelias ED, Anagnostis P, Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP (2008) Spironolactone versus eplerenone for the treatment of idiopathic hyperaldosteronism. Expert Opin Pharmacother 9:509–515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sood A, Majumder K, Kachroo N, Sammon JD, Abdollah F, Schmid M, Hsu L, Jeong W, Meyer CP, Hanske J, Kalu R, Menon M, Trinh QD (2016) Adverse event rates, timing of complications, and the impact of specialty on outcomes following adrenal surgery: an analysis of 30-day outcome data from the American college of surgeons national surgical quality improvement program (ACS-NSQIP). Urology 90:62–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Niemann LK (2015) Cushing’s syndrome: update on signs, symptoms and biochemical screening. Eur J Endocrinol 173:M33–M38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Gumbs AA, Gagner M (2006) Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 20:483–499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Flohr F, Seufert J (2007) Hypophysen- und Nebennierenoperationen. Internist 48:578–585CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hahner S, Allolio B (2005) Management of adrenal insufficiency in different clinical settings. Expert Opin Pharmacother 6:2407–2417CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Ortiz DI, Findling JW, Carroll TB, Javorsky BR, Carr AA, Evans DB, Yen TW, Wang TS (2016) Cosyntropin stimulation testing on postoperative day 1 allows for selective glucocorticoid replacement therapy after adrenalectomy for hypercortisolism: results of a novel, multidisciplinary institutional protocol. Surgery 159:259–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    der Zee V, de Boer A (2014) Pheochromocytoma: a review on preoperative treatment with phenoxybenzamine or doxazosin. Neth J Med 72:190–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Shao Y, Chen R, Shen ZJ, Teng Y, Huang P, Rui WB, Xie X, Zhou WL (2011) Preoperative alpha blockade for normotensive pheochromocytoma: is it necessary. J Hypertens 29:2429–2432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Groeben H, Nottebaum BJ, Alesina PF, Traut A, Neumann HP, Walz MK (2017) Perioperative alpha-receptor blockade in pheochromocytoma surgery: an observational case series. Br J Anaesth 118:182–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lafont M, Fagour C, Haissaguerre M, Darancette G, Wagner T, Corcuff JB, Tabarin A (2015) Perioperative hemodynamic instability in normotensive patients with incidentally discovered pheochromocytomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100:417–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Naranjo J, Dodd S, Martin YN (2017) Perioperative management of pheochromocytoma. J Cardiothoracic Vasc Anaest 31:1427–1439. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Ong KR, Woodward ER, Killick P, Lim C, Macdonald F, Maher ER (2007) Genotype-phenotype correlations in von Hippel-Lindau disease. Hum Mutat 28:143–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Caumont-Prim A, Houzard C, Hignette C, Hernigou A, Halimi P, Niccoli P, Leboulleux S, Amar L, Borson-Chazot F, Cardot-Bauters C, Delemer B, Chabolle F, Coupier I, Libé R, Peitzsch M, Peyrard S, Tenenbaum F, Plouin PF, Chatellier G, Rohmer V (2013) Imaging work-up for screening of paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma in SDHx mutation carriers: a multicenter prospective study from the PGL.EVA Investigators. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:162–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB (2007) The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer 14(569):585Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Amar L, Fassnacht M, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Januszewicz A, Prejbisz A, Timmers H, Plouin PF (2012) Long-term postoperative follow-up in patients with apparently benign pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Horm Metab Res 44:385–389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Favier J, Amar L, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP (2015) Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: from genetic to clinics. Nat Rev Endocrinol 11:101–111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Eisenhofer G, Lenders JW, Siegert G, Bornstein SR, Friberg P, Milosevic D, Mannelli M, Linehan WM, Adams K, Timmers HJ, Pacak K (2012) Plasma methoxytyramine: a novel biomarker of metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in relation to established risk factors of tumour size, location and SDHB mutation status. Eur J Cancer 48:1739–1749CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Eisenhofer G, Peitzsch M (2014) Laboratory evaluation of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Clin Chem 60:1486–1499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Neumann HP, Pawlu C, Peczkowska M, Bausch B, McWhinney SR, Muresan M, Buchta M, Franke G, Klisch J, Bley TA, Hoegerle S, Boedeker CC, Opocher G, Schipper J, Januszewicz A, Eng C (2004) Distinct clinical features of paraganglioma syndromes associated with SDHB and SDHD gene mutations. J Am Ass Med 292:943–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Rufini V, Treglia G, Castaldi P, Perotti G, Giordano A (2013) Comparison of metaiodobenzyl-guanidine scintigraphy with positron emission tomography in the diagnostic work-up of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: a systematic review. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 57:122–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Cascón A, Comino-Méndez I, Currás-Freixes M, de Cubas AA, Contreras L, Richter S, Peitzsch M, Mancikova V, Inglada-Pérez L, Pérez-Barrios A, Calatayud M, Azriel S, Villar-Vicente R, Aller J, Setién F, Moran S, Garcia JF, Río-Machín A, Letón R, Gómez-Graña Á, Apellániz-Ruiz M, Roncador G, Esteller M, Rodríguez-Antona C, Satrústegui J, Eisenhofer G, Urioste M, Robledo M (2015) Whole-exome sequencing identifies MDH2 as a new familial paraganglioma gene. J Natl Cancer Inst 107:5CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Lorenz
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Langer
    • 2
  • B. Niederle
    • 3
  • P. Alesina
    • 4
  • K. Holzer
    • 5
  • Ch. Nies
    • 6
  • Th. Musholt
    • 7
  • P. E. Goretzki
    • 8
  • N. Rayes
    • 9
  • M. Quinkler
    • 10
  • J. Waldmann
    • 11
  • D. Simon
    • 12
  • A. Trupka
    • 13
  • R. Ladurner
    • 14
  • K. Hallfeldt
    • 14
  • A. Zielke
    • 15
  • D. Saeger
    • 16
  • Th. Pöppel
    • 17
  • G. Kukuk
    • 18
  • A. Hötker
    • 19
  • P. Schabram
    • 20
  • S. Schopf
    • 21
  • C. Dotzenrath
    • 22
  • P. Riss
    • 23
  • Th. Steinmüller
    • 24
  • I. Kopp
    • 25
  • C. Vorländer
    • 26
  • M. K. Walz
    • 4
  • D. K. Bartsch
    • 5
  1. 1.Universitätsklinikum HalleHalle/SaaleGermany
  2. 2.Klinikum HanauHanauGermany
  3. 3.Ordination SiebenbrunnenstrasseWienAustria
  4. 4.Kliniken Essen-MitteEssenGermany
  5. 5.Universitätsklinikum MarburgMarburgGermany
  6. 6.Marienhospital OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany
  7. 7.Universitatsklinikum MainzMainzGermany
  8. 8.Charité Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany
  9. 9.Universitätsklinikum LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  10. 10.Endokrinologiepraxis BerlinBerlinGermany
  11. 11.MIVENDO Klinik HamburgHamburgGermany
  12. 12.Evangelisches Krankenhaus BETHESDA DuisburgDuisburgGermany
  13. 13.Klinikum StarnbergKlinikum StarnbergGermany
  14. 14.Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMünchenGermany
  15. 15. Diakonie-Klinikum StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  16. 16.Universitätsklinikum HamburgHamburgGermany
  17. 17.Heinrich-Heine-Universität DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany
  18. 18.Universitätsklinikum BonnBonnGermany
  19. 19.Universitätsklinikum ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  20. 20.RAE Ratacjzak und PartnerSindelfingenGermany
  21. 21.Krankenhaus AgathariedHaushamGermany
  22. 22.HELIOS Universitätsklinikum WuppertalWuppertalGermany
  23. 23.Medizinische Universität WienWienAustria
  24. 24.Deutsches Rotes Kreuz Krankenhaus BerlinBerlinGermany
  25. 25.AWMFFrankfurt am MainGermany
  26. 26.Bürgerhospital FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany

Personalised recommendations