Surgical treatment for multinodular goitres in geriatric patients
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Although age is not a contraindication for thyroid surgery, few elderly patients undergo surgery due to the greater risk of morbidity. The aims of this study are to determine in patients aged >65 years: (1) whether the indications for surgery on multinodular goitre (MG) differ with respect to younger patients; (2) the surgical results; and (3) whether the postsurgery morbidity and mortality rates are higher.
Patients and method
Eighty-one patients aged over 65 years who were receiving surgery for MG were analysed; 40 49%) presented with associated co-morbidities. Sixty percent had thyroid symptoms, either compressive and/or toxic. All underwent programmed surgery following stabilisation and strict control of their co-morbidities. As a control group we used 510 MG patients receiving surgery and aged between 30 and 65 years.
Compared with the control group the geriatric patients had a longer time of goitre evolution (P=0.032), greater presence of symptoms (P=0.001) and a higher percentage of intrathoracic component (P=0.001). Compressive symptoms were the major indication for surgery (P=0.001). Postoperative complications occurred in 40% of the patients, a higher rate than in the control group (28%; P=0.011), although a large percentage of those complications were transitory. Definitive complications included two recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries (2.5%). The preoperative symptoms remitted in all the patients, and only three were associated with a thyroid carcinoma, one of which was anaplastic.
MG operated on in elderly patients has a longer evolution and an intrathoracic component, and surgery is indicated restrictively. With close monitoring of the co-morbidities and a programmed operation the results with regard to morbidity and mortality are similar to those obtained at younger ages.
KeywordsMultinodular goitre Elderly patients Surgery Postsurgical Morbidity and mortality
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