Biological Cybernetics

, 105:121 | Cite as

Multiscale modeling of skeletal muscle properties and experimental validations in isometric conditions

  • Hassan El Makssoud
  • David Guiraud
  • Philippe Poignet
  • Mitsuhiro Hayashibe
  • Pierre-Brice Wieber
  • Ken Yoshida
  • Christine Azevedo-Coste
Original Paper


In this article, we describe an approach to model the electromechanical behavior of the skeletal muscle based on the Huxley formulation. We propose a model that complies with a well established macroscopic behavior of striated muscles where force-length, force–velocity, and Mirsky–Parmley properties are taken into account. These properties are introduced at the microscopic scale and related to a tentative explanation of the phenomena. The method used integrates behavior ranging from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, and allows the computation of the dynamics of the output force and stiffness controlled by EMG or stimulation parameters. The model can thus be used to simulate and carry out research to develop control strategies using electrical stimulation in the context of rehabilitation. Finally, through animal experiments, we estimated model parameters using a Sigma Point Kalman Filtering technique and dedicated experimental protocols in isometric conditions and demonstrated that the model can accurately simulate individual variations and thus take into account subject dependent behavior.


Muscle model Parameters identification Kalman filtering Electrical stimulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassan El Makssoud
    • 1
  • David Guiraud
    • 2
  • Philippe Poignet
    • 2
  • Mitsuhiro Hayashibe
    • 2
  • Pierre-Brice Wieber
    • 3
  • Ken Yoshida
    • 4
  • Christine Azevedo-Coste
    • 2
  1. 1.Azm center for research in biotechnology and its applications, Lebanese UniversityTripoliLebanon
  2. 2.DEMAR team, INRIA and University of Montpellier 2 - LIRMMMontpellier Cedex 5France
  3. 3.BIPOP team, INRIA, InnovalleSt. Ismier CedexFrance
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical EngineeringIndiana University-Purdue UniversityIndianapolisUSA

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