European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 82, Issue 5–6, pp 361–367

Changes in hardness of the human elbow flexor muscles after eccentric exercise

  • Mitsuyoshi Murayama
  • Kazunori Nosaka
  • Tsugutake Yoneda
  • Kazutoshi Minamitani
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

DOI: 10.1007/s004210000242

Cite this article as:
Murayama, M., Nosaka, K., Yoneda, T. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2000) 82: 361. doi:10.1007/s004210000242

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in muscle hardness after eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors muscles that produce muscle shortening and swelling. To assess muscle hardness, a pressure method was used in which the force required to deform the tissue (skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle) was recorded. Eleven healthy male students performed 24 maximal eccentric actions of the elbow flexor muscles with their non-dominant arms. Muscle hardness, maximal isometric force (MIF), muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, relaxed elbow joint angle (RANG), upper-arm circumference (CIR) and B-mode ultrasound transverse images were measured before, immediately after, and 1–5 days after exercise. A long-lasting decrease in MIF, muscle swelling shown by increases in CIR and muscle thickness, large increases in plasma CK activity, and development of muscle soreness indicated that damage occurred to the elbow flexor muscles. The RANG had decreased by approximately 20° at 1–3 days after exercise and showed a gradual recovery thereafter. The CIR increased gradually after exercise and peaked on day 5 post-exercise, the mean amount of increase in CIR being 18 mm. Muscle hardness measured at the relaxed elbow position did not change until 3 days after exercise, but increased significantly (P < 0.01) on days 4 and 5 post-exercise. On the other hand, muscle hardness measured when forcibly extending the shortened elbow joint increased significantly (P < 0.01) with time and peaked at 3 days after exercise. Muscle hardness assessed by the pressure method seems to reflect changes in muscle stiffness and swelling.

Key words Muscle stiffness Muscle damage Muscle shortening Swelling Pressure method 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitsuyoshi Murayama
    • 1
  • Kazunori Nosaka
    • 2
  • Tsugutake Yoneda
    • 3
  • Kazutoshi Minamitani
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Physical Education, Keio University, 4-1-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8521, Japan e-mail: murayama@hc.cc.keio.ac.jp Tel.: +81-45-5631111; Fax: +81-45-5638122JP
  2. 2.Exercise and Sports Science, Department of Environmental Science, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, 236-0027, JapanJP
  3. 3.Laboratory of Physiology, School of Sports and Health Science, Juntendo University, Chiba, 270-1695, JapanJP

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