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Knee extension with blood flow restriction: Impact of cuff pressure on hemodynamics

  • Tyler J. SingerEmail author
  • Jon Stavres
  • Steven J. Elmer
  • Matthew A. Kilgas
  • Brandon S. Pollock
  • Sarah G. Kearney
  • John McDaniel
Original Article

Abstract

Introduction

Blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise has emerged as a method of increasing muscle size and strength with low intensity resistance training. While the cuff pressures used during BFR are typically a percentage of resting arterial occlusion pressure (AOP), the impact these cuff pressures have on blood flow during lower body exercise is unknown.

Purpose

To determine how various cuff pressures impact blood flow and tissue perfusion during exercise.

Methods

Eleven healthy male participants completed four sets of knee extension (30 reps per set at 30% max torque) with 0%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) was applied to the proximal portion of the thigh. Femoral artery blood flow, tissue oxygenation, and central hemodynamics were continuously recorded before, during, and after exercise. Electromyography (EMG) amplitude was recorded from the vastus lateralis during exercise.

Results

Blood flow increased during exercise compared to rest across all cuff pressures (p < 0.001), however compared to 0%, the absolute blood flow was reduced by 34 ± 17%, 45 ± 22%, and 72 ± 19% for 60, 80, and 100% AOP, respectively. Furthermore, each cuff pressure resulted in similar relative changes in blood flow before, during, and after exercise. During exercise, tissue saturation index (TSI) decreased as cuff pressure increased (p ≤ 0.005) with the exception of 80 to 100% AOP. Deoxyhemoglobin increased (p ≤ 0.001) with cuff pressure.

Conclusion

Our data indicate that while BFR knee extension elicits an absolute hyperemic response at cuff pressures up to 100% resting AOP, the relative reductions in blood flow are consistent across rest, exercise and recovery.

Keywords

Arterial occlusion Resistance exercise Near inferred spectroscopy Blood flow restriction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank everyone who participated in this study.

Funding

No external funding was received for this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that they have no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Exercise PhysiologyKent State UniversityKentUSA
  2. 2.Heart and Vascular InstitutePenn State University College of MedicineHersheyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Kinesiology and Integrated PhysiologyMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA
  4. 4.School of Health and Human PerformanceNorthern Michigan UniversityMarquetteUSA
  5. 5.Exercise Science ProgramWalsh UniversityNorth CantonUSA

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