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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 119, Issue 9, pp 2011–2024 | Cite as

Gender-dependent evaluation of football as medicine for prediabetes

  • Magni MohrEmail author
  • May-Britt Skoradal
  • Thomas Rostgaard Andersen
  • Peter Krustrup
Original Article
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Training intensity and health effects of football were investigated gender specifically in individuals with prediabetes.

Methods

Participants with prediabetes (age 60 ± 6 years) were randomised into a football and dietary advice group (FD-men n = 13 and FD-women n = 14) or a dietary advice only group (D-men n = 12 and D-women n = 11). FD performed football training (twice/week for 16 weeks), while both groups received dietary advice. Body composition, bone variables, blood pressure, blood lipid profile and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) were determined pre- and post-intervention.

Results

Mean heart rate during football training was 79 ± 2 and 80 ± 3% HRmax for FD-men and FD-women, respectively, with peak heart rate values of 96 ± 1 and 97 ± 2% HRmax, with no gender differences. VO2peak increased more (P < 0.05) in FD-men and FD-women than in D-men and D-women. However, relative delta change in VO2peak was 21 ± 14% in FD-women, which was greater (P < 0.05) than in FD-men (11 ± 12%). Reduction in SBP and DBP, respectively, was similar in FD-men (− 10.8 ± 13.0 and − 7.3 ± 11.8 mmHg) and FD-women (− 11.3 ± 11.0 and − 7.1 ± 6.2 mmHg), with within-gender differences for men. Total plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol decreased (P < 0.05) by − 0.7 ± 1.1 and − 0.5 ± 0.9 mmol L−1, respectively, in FD-women and − 0.2 ± 0.4 and − 0.2 ± 0.3 mmol L−1 in FD-men, with no significant gender differences (P = 0.08). Body fat content was lowered (P < 0.05) by 3 and 4%-points in FD-men and FD-women, respectively.

Conclusion

Gender-mixed football training combined with dietary advice causes broad-spectrum health effects for men and women with prediabetes, with minor gender-specific differences. Thus, the intensity and training-induced effects of football training are also high for elderly women with prediabetes.

Keywords

Soccer VO2peak Fat percentage Blood pressure Cholesterol Cardiometabolic fitness 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

BTM

Bone turnover markers

BMC

Bone mineral content

BP

Blood pressure

CI

Confidence interval

CRP

C-reactive protein

CTX

C-terminal telopeptide

BMD

Bone mineral density

DBP

Diastolic blood pressure

Diet-men

Diet men

Diet-women

Diet women

DXA

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

ES

Effect size

FD-men

Football and diet men

FD-women

Football and diet women

HR

Heart rate

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

IFG

Impaired fasting glycaemia

IGT

Impaired glucose tolerance

LBM

Lean body mass

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

L2, L3 and L4

Lumbar vertebrae

MAP

Mean arterial pressure

OGTT

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

VO2peak

Peak oxygen uptake

P1NP

Procollagen type I N propeptide

RCT

Randomized Controlled Trial

RHR

Resting heart rate

SD

Standard deviation

SBP

Systolic blood pressure

TC

Total cholesterol

TG

Triglycerides

T2DM

Type II diabetes mellitus

VO2max

Maximal oxygen uptake

W

Watt

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our appreciation of the outstanding efforts and positive attitude of the participants. In addition, we are extremely grateful for the technical assistance provided by Sólfríð Skoradal, Jan Poulsen, Annika Gleðisheygg, Hjalti Gleðisheygg, Charlotta Nielsen, Brandur Jacobsen, Johild Dulavík, Hildigunn Steinholm, Ivy Hansen, Gunnrið Jóannesarson, Ann Østerø, Nina Djurhuus, Ebba Andreassen, Maud av Fløtum, Súsanna Olsen, Synøva Hansen, Ronnie Midjord, Noomi Holm, Virgar Hvidbro, Guðrið Andorsdóttir, and Jens Jung Nielsen. We would also like to thank Prof. Pál Weihe, Prof. Jann Mortensen, PhD-student Poula Patursson, and MD Jens Andreassen for their invaluable support. The study was supported by a grant from the Faroese Research Council (Sjúkrakassagrunnurin), as well as by the Faroese Football Association (Fótbóltssamband Føroya; FSF) and the Faroese Diabetes Organisation (Diabetesfelag Føroya).

Author contributions

MM and PK conceived and designed the research project. MM, MS, TR and PK conducted the experiments. MM, MS and TR analyzed the data. MM and PK wrote the manuscript with inputs from MS and TR. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Sport and Health Sciences Cluster (SHSC), Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark
  2. 2.Centre of Health Science, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of the Faroe IslandsTórshavnFaroe Islands
  3. 3.Centre for Health and PerformanceUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  4. 4.Sport and Health Sciences, College of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of ExeterExeterUK
  5. 5.Department of Sports ScienceShanghai University of SportShanghaiChina

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