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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 119, Issue 9, pp 1959–1970 | Cite as

Physiological adaptations to repeated sprint training in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume

  • Xavier WooronsEmail author
  • Grégoire P. Millet
  • Patrick Mucci
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the effects of repeated-sprint (RS) training in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume (RSH-VHL) on physiological adaptations, RS ability (RSA) and anaerobic performance.

Methods

Over a 3-week period, eighteen well-trained cyclists completed six RS sessions in cycling either with RSH-VHL or with normal conditions (RSN). Before (Pre) and after (Post) the training period, the subjects performed an RSA test (10 × 6-s all-out cycling sprints) during which oxygen uptake \(\left( {{\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2} } \right)\) and the change in both muscle deoxyhaemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) and total haemoglobin (Δ[THb]) were measured. A 30-s Wingate test was also performed and maximal blood lactate concentration ([La]max) was assessed.

Results

At Post compared to Pre, the mean power output during both the RSA and the Wingate tests was improved in RSH-VHL (846 ± 98 vs 911 ± 117 W and 723 ± 112 vs 768 ± 123 W, p < 0.05) but not in RSN (834 ± 52 vs 852 ± 69 W, p = 0.2; 710 ± 63 vs 713 ± 72 W, p = 0.68). The average \({\dot{{\text{V}}}{{\text{O}}}}_{2}\) recorded during the RSA test was significantly higher in RSH-VHL at Post but did not change in RSN. No change occurred for Δ[THb] whereas Δ[HHb] increased to the same extent in both groups. [Lamax] after the Wingate test was higher in RSH-VHL at Post (13.9 ± 2.8 vs 16.1 ± 3.2 mmol L−1, p < 0.01) and tended to decrease in RSN (p = 0.1).

Conclusions

This study showed that RSH-VHL could bring benefits to both RSA and anaerobic performance through increases in oxygen delivery and glycolytic contribution. On the other hand, no additional effect was observed for the indices of muscle blood volume and O2 extraction.

Keywords

Hypoventilation Hypoxia Hypoxemia Cycling 

Abbreviations

[HHb]

Muscle concentrations of deoxyhaemoglobin

[La]

Blood lactate concentration

\([{\rm La}]_{\max}\)

Maximal blood lactate concentration

\(\left[ {{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {}}} {\text{Hb}}} \right]\)

Muscle concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin

[THb]

Total haemoglobin

HR

Heart rate

MPO

Mean power output

NIRS

Near-infrared spectroscopy

\({\text{O}}_{{ 2 {}}}\)

Oxygen

PPO

Peak power output

Reoxy[HHb]

Amplitude variation between the peak and nadir [HHb]

Reoxy[THb]

Amplitude variation between the peak and nadir [THb]

RPE

Rating of perceived exertion

RSA

Repeated sprint ability

RSE

Repeated-sprint exercise

RSH

Repeated sprints in hypoxia

RSH-VHL

Repeated sprints in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume

RSN

Repeated sprints in normoxia

\({\text{SpO}}_{{ 2 {}}}\)

Arterial oxygen saturation

VHL

Voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume

\({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2}\)

Oxygen uptake

\({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{2} /{\text{HR}}\)

Oxygen pulse

Notes

Acknowledgements

We sincerely thank all the subjects who participated in this study for their efforts, time and dedication. We are also grateful to Adrien Combes for his assistance.

Author contributions

XW and PM conceived and designed research and conducted the experiments. XW, GM and PM analysed data and interpreted the results of the experiments. XW wrote the manuscript. All authors edited, revised and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Funding

The authors declare that they received no funding for this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Univ. Lille, Univ. Artois, Univ. Littoral Côte d’Opale, EA 7369 - URePSSS - Unité de Recherche Pluridisciplinaire Sport Santé SociétéLilleFrance
  2. 2.Institute of Sport Sciences (ISSUL), Faculty of Biology and MedicineLausanneSwitzerland

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