Sprint running: from fundamental mechanics to practice—a review

  • Thomas HaugenEmail author
  • David McGhie
  • Gertjan Ettema
Invited Review


In this review, we examine the literature in light of the mechanical principles that govern linear accelerated running. While the scientific literature concerning sprint mechanics is comprehensive, these principles of fundamental mechanics present some pitfalls which can (and does) lead to misinterpretations of findings. Various models of sprint mechanics, most of which build on the spring–mass paradigm, are discussed with reference to both the insight they provide and their limitations. Although much research confirms that sprinters to some extent behave like a spring–mass system with regard to gross kinematics (step length, step rate, ground contact time, and lower limb deformation), the laws of motion, supported by empirical evidence, show that applying the spring–mass model for accelerated running has flaws. It is essential to appreciate that models are pre-set interpretations of reality; finding that a model describes the motor behaviour well is not proof of the mechanism behind the model. Recent efforts to relate sprinting mechanics to metabolic demands are promising, but have the same limitation of being model based. Furthermore, a large proportion of recent literature focuses on the interaction between total and horizontal (end-goal) force. We argue that this approach has limitations concerning fundamental sprinting mechanics. Moreover, power analysis based on isolated end-goal force is flawed. In closing, some prominent practical concepts and didactics in sprint running are discussed in light of the mechanical principles presented. Ultimately, whereas the basic principles of sprinting are relatively simple, the way an athlete manages the mechanical constraints and opportunities is far more complex.


Running technique Kinetics Stiffness Braking Propulsion Power 



Accumulated oxygen deficit


Centre of mass


Decrease of ratio of forces

Feff %

Force effectiveness (%)


Ground reaction force


Leg stiffness


Maximum horizontal power


Ratio of forces (horizontal over total)


Force–velocity slope


Step rate


Contact time


Aerial time


Time constant (tau)



We thank Ian Bezodis for selflessly providing us with original research data.

Author contributions

All the authors (TH, DM, and GE) contributed significantly in editing, compiling evidence, synthesizing, proof reading, and revising the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


  1. Arsac LM, Locatelli E (2002) Modeling the energetics of 100-m running by using speed curves of world champions. J Appl Physiol 92(5):1781–1788CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Babić V, Čoh M, Dizdar D (2011) Differences in kinematic parameters of athletes of different running quality. Biol Sport 28(2):115–121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bae Y-S, Park Y-J, Park J-J, Lee J-S, Chae W-S, Park S-B (2011) Sport Biomechanics Research Project at IAAF World Championships Daegu 2011. Kor J Sport Biomech 21(5):503–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beneke R, Taylor MJ (2010) What gives Bolt the edge-A.V. Hill knew it already! J Biomech 43(11):2241–2243. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Best CH, Partridge RC (1928) The equation of motion of a runner, exerting a maximal effort. Proc R Soc B 103(724):218–225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bezodis IN, Kerwin DG, Salo AI (2008) Lower-limb mechanics during the support phase of maximum-velocity sprint running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40(4):707–715. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bezodis NE, Salo AI, Trewartha G (2014) Lower limb joint kinetics during the first stance phase in athletics sprinting: three elite athlete case studies. J Sports Sci 32(8):738–746. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bezodis IN, Kerwin DG, Cooper SM, Salo AIT (2018) Sprint running performance and technique changes in athletes during periodized training: an elite training group case study. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 13(6):755–762. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Biewener AA, McGowan C, Card GM, Baudinette RV (2004) Dynamics of leg muscle function in tammar wallabies (M. eugenii) during level versus incline hopping. J Exp Biol 207(Pt 2):211–223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blickhan R (1989) The spring-mass model for running and hopping. J Biomech 22(11):1217–1227. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bobbert MF, Gerritsen KG, Litjens MC, Van Soest AJ (1996) Why is countermovement jump height greater than squat jump height? Med Sci Sports Exerc 28(11):1402–1412CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brughelli M, Cronin J, Chaouachi A (2011) Effects of running velocity on running kinetics and kinematics. J Strength Cond Res 25(4):933–939. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cavagna GA, Dusman B, Margaria R (1968) Positive work done by a previously stretched muscle. J Appl Physiol 24(1):21–32. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cavagna GA, Komarek L, Mazzoleni S (1971) The mechanics of sprint running. J Physiol 217(3):709–721CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Chatzilazaridis I, Panoutsakopoulos V, Papaiakovou GI (2012) Stride characteristics progress in a 40-m sprinting test executed by male preadolescent, adolescent and adult athletes. Biol Exerc 8:115–121Google Scholar
  16. Chelly SM, Denis C (2001) Leg power and hopping stiffness: relationship with sprint running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33(2):326–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Clark KP, Weyand PG (2014) Are running speeds maximized with simple-spring stance mechanics? J Appl Physiol 117(6):604–615. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Čoh M, Milanović D, Kampmiller T (2001) Morphologic and kinematic characteristics of elite sprinters. Coll Antropol 25(2):605–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Čoh M, Tomažin K, Štuhec S (2006) The biomechanical model of the sprint start and block acceleration. Phys Educ Sport 4:103–114Google Scholar
  20. Colyer SL, Nagahara R, Salo AIT (2018a) Kinetic demands of sprinting shift across the acceleration phase: novel analysis of entire force waveforms. Scand J Med Sci Sports 28(7):1784–1792. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Colyer SL, Nagahara R, Takai Y, Salo AIT (2018b) How sprinters accelerate beyond the velocity plateau of soccer players: waveform analysis of ground reaction forces. Scand J Med Sci Sports 28(12):2527–2535. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cross R (2002) Grip-slip behavior of a bouncing ball. A J Phys 70(11):1093–1102. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dal Pupo J, Arins FB, Antonacci Guglielmo LG, Rosendo da Silva RC, Moro AR, Dos Santos SG (2013) Physiological and neuromuscular indices associated with sprint running performance. Res Sports Med 21(2):124–135. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Debaere S, Delecluse C, Aerenhouts D, Hagman F, Jonkers I (2013a) From block clearance to sprint running: characteristics underlying an effective transition. J Sports Sci 31(2):137–149. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Debaere S, Jonkers I, Delecluse C (2013b) The contribution of step characteristics to sprint running performance in high-level male and female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(1):116–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. di Prampero PE, Fusi S, Sepulcri L, Morin JB, Belli A, Antonutto G (2005) Sprint running: a new energetic approach. J Exp Biol 208(Pt 14):2809–2816. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. di Prampero PE, Botter A, Osgnach C (2015) The energy cost of sprint running and the role of metabolic power in setting top performances. Eur J Appl Physiol 115(3):451–469. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Donelan JM, Kram R, Kuo AD (2002) Simultaneous positive and negative external mechanical work in human walking. J Biomech 35(1):117–124. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Duffield R, Dawson B, Goodman C (2004) Energy system contribution to 100-m and 200-m track running events. J Sci Med Sport 7(3):302–313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Duffield R, Dawson B, Goodman C (2005) Energy system contribution to 400-metre and 800-metre track running. J Sports Sci 23(3):299–307. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Edman KA, Elzinga G, Noble MI (1978) Enhancement of mechanical performance by stretch during tetanic contractions of vertebrate skeletal muscle fibres. J Physiol 281:139–155CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Ettema GJC (2001) Muscle efficiency: the controversial role of elasticity and mechanical energy conversion in stretch-shortening cycles. Eur J Appl Physiol 85(5):457–465. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ettema GJ, van Soest AJ, Huijing PA (1990) The role of series elastic structures in prestretch-induced work enhancement during isotonic and isokinetic contractions. J Exp Biol 154:121–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ettema G, McGhie D, Danielsen J, Sandbakk O, Haugen T (2016) On the existence of step-to-step breakpoint transitions in accelerated sprinting. PLoS One. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Farley CT, Gonzalez O (1996) Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running. J Biomech 29(2):181–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fenn WO (1930) Work against gravity and work due to velocity changes in running. Am J Physiol 93(2):433–462. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Furusawa K, Hill AV, Parkinson JL (1927) The dynamics of “sprint” running. Proc R Soc B 102(713):29–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gastin PB (2001) Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise. Sports Med 31(10):725–741. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bishop D (2011) Repeated-sprint ability—part I: factors contributing to fatigue. Sports Med 41(8):673–694. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Göpfert C, Lindinger SJ, Ohtonen O, Rapp W, Müller E, Linnamo V (2016) The effect of swinging the arms on muscle activation and production of leg force during ski skating at different skiing speeds. Hum Mov Sci 47:209–219. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Graubner R, Nixdorf E (2011) Biomechanical analysis of the sprint and hurdles events at the 2009 IAAF World Championships in athletics. New Stud Athl 26:19–53Google Scholar
  42. Griffiths RI (1989) The mechanics of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in the freely hopping wallaby (Thylogale billardierii). J Exp Biol 147(1):439–456Google Scholar
  43. Guskiewicz K, Lephart S, Burkholder R (1993) The relationship between sprint speed and hip flexion/extension strength in collegiate athletes. Isokinet Exerc Sci 3:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hanon C, Lepretre PM, Bishop D, Thomas C (2010) Oxygen uptake and blood metabolic responses to a 400-m run. Eur J Appl Physiol 109(2):233–240. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Haugen TA, Tonnessen E, Seiler S (2012) Speed and countermovement-jump characteristics of elite female soccer players, 1995–2010. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 7(4):340–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Haugen TA, Tonnessen E, Seiler S (2013) Anaerobic performance testing of professional soccer players 1995-2010. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 8(2):148–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Haugen T, Danielsen J, Alnes LO, McGhie D, Sandbakk O, Ettema G (2018a) On the importance of “front-side mechanics” in athletics sprinting. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 13(4):420–427. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Haugen T, Danielsen J, McGhie D, Sandbakk O, Ettema G (2018b) Kinematic stride cycle asymmetry is not associated with sprint performance and injury prevalence in athletic sprinters. Scand J Med Sci Sports 28(3):1001–1008. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Haugen T, Paulsen G, Seiler S, Sandbakk O (2018c) New records in human power. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 13(6):678–686. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Haugen T, Breitschädel F, Seiler S (2019) Sprint mechanical properties in athletes: reference values for practitioners. PLoS One (in press) Google Scholar
  51. Hautier CA, Wouassi D, Arsac LM, Bitanga E, Thiriet P, Lacour JR (1994) Relationships between postcompetition blood lactate concentration and average running velocity over 100-m and 200-m races. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 68(6):508–513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hay JG (2002) Cycle rate, length, and speed of progression in human locomotion. J Appl Biomech 18(3):257–270. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hirvonen J, Rehunen S, Rusko H, Harkonen M (1987) Breakdown of high-energy phosphate compounds and lactate accumulation during short supramaximal exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 56(3):253–259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hof AL, Van Zandwijk JP, Bobbert MF (2002) Mechanics of human triceps surae muscle in walking, running and jumping. Acta Physiol Scand 174(1):17–30. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hoogkamer W, Taboga P, Kram R (2014) Applying the cost of generating force hypothesis to uphill running. PeerJ 2:e482. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Hunter JP, Marshall RN, McNair PJ (2004a) Interaction of step length and step rate during sprint running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(2):261–271. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hunter JP, Marshall RN, McNair PJ (2004b) Segment-interaction analysis of the stance limb in sprint running. J Biomech 37(9):1439–1446. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hunter JP, Marshall RN, McNair PJ (2005) Relationships between ground reaction force impulse and kinematics of sprint-running acceleration. J Appl Biomech 21(1):31–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson MD, Buckley JG (2001) Muscle power patterns in the mid-acceleration phase of sprinting. J Sports Sci 19(4):263–272. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Korhonen MT, Mero AA, Alén M, Sipilä S, Häkkinen K, Liikavainio T, Viitasalo JT, Haverinen MT, Suominen H (2009) Biomechanical and skeletal muscle determinants of maximum running speed with aging. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41(4):844–856. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kristensen GO, van den Tillaar R, Ettema GJC (2006) Velocity specificity in early-phase sprint training. J Strength Cond Res 20(4):833–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kugler F, Janshen L (2010) Body position determines propulsive forces in accelerated running. J Biomech 43(2):343–348. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kunz H, Kaufmann DA (1981) Biomechanical analysis of sprinting: decathletes versus champions. Br J Sports Med 15(3):177–181CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Lacour JR, Bouvat E, Barthelemy JC (1990) Post-competition blood lactate concentrations as indicators of anaerobic energy expenditure during 400-m and 800-m races. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 61(3–4):172–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lai A, Schache AG, Lin YC, Pandy MG (2014) Tendon elastic strain energy in the human ankle plantar-flexors and its role with increased running speed. J Exp Biol 217(Pt 17):3159–3168. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lai A, Schache AG, Brown NA, Pandy MG (2016) Human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon mechanics and energetics during maximum acceleration sprinting. J R Soc Interface. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Latash ML, Zatsiorsky VM (1993) Joint stiffness: myth or reality? Hum Mov Sci 12(6):653–692. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lichtwark GA, Wilson AM (2007) Is Achilles tendon compliance optimised for maximum muscle efficiency during locomotion? J Biomech 40(8):1768–1775. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lockie RG, Schultz AB, Callaghan SJ, Jeffriess MD, Berry SP (2013) Reliability and validity of a new test of change-of-direction speed for field-based sports: the change-of-direction and acceleration test (CODAT). J Sports Sci Med 12(1):88–96PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Mann R, Herman J (1985) Kinematic analysis of Olympic sprint performance: men’s 200 meters. Int J Sport Biomech 1:151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mann RV, Murphy A (2015) The mechanics of sprinting and hurdling. CreateSpace, Scotts ValleyGoogle Scholar
  72. Mann R, Sprague P (1980) A kinetic analysis of the ground leg during sprint running. Res Q Exerc Sport 51(2):334–348. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mann R, Kotmel J, Herman J, Johnson G, Schultz B (1984) Kinematic trends in elite sprinters. In: Terauds J (ed) Sports biomechanics. Academic Publishers, DelMar, pp 17–33Google Scholar
  74. McMahon TA, Cheng GC (1990) The mechanics of running: how does stiffness couple with speed? J Biomech 23:65–78. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mero A (1988) Force-time characteristics and running velocity of male sprinters during the acceleration phase of sprinting. Res Q Exerc Sport 59(2):94–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mero A, Luhtanen P, Komi PV (1983) A biomechanical study of the sprint start. Scand J Sports Sci 5(1):20–28Google Scholar
  77. Mero A, Komi PV, Gregor RJ (1992) Biomechanics of sprint running. A review. Sports Med 13(6):376–392. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Monte A, Muollo V, Nardello F, Zamparo P (2017) Sprint running: how changes in step frequency affect running mechanics and leg spring behaviour at maximal speed. J Sports Sci 35(4):339–345. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Morin JB, Dalleau G, Kyrolainen H, Jeannin T, Belli A (2005) A simple method for measuring stiffness during running. J Appl Biomech 21(2):167–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Morin JB, Jeannin T, Chevallier B, Belli A (2006) Spring-mass model characteristics during sprint running: correlation with performance and fatigue-induced changes. Int J Sports Med 27(2):158–165. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Morin JB, Edouard P, Samozino P (2011a) Technical ability of force application as a determinant factor of sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43(9):1680–1688. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Morin JB, Samozino P, Edouard P, Tomazin K (2011b) Effect of fatigue on force production and force application technique during repeated sprints. J Biomech 44(15):2719–2723. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Morin JB, Bourdin M, Edouard P, Peyrot N, Samozino P, Lacour JR (2012) Mechanical determinants of 100-m sprint running performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 112(11):3921–3930. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Morin JB, Gimenez P, Edouard P, Arnal P, Jimenez-Reyes P, Samozino P, Brughelli M, Mendiguchia J (2015a) Sprint acceleration mechanics: the major role of hamstrings in horizontal force production. Front Physiol 6:404. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Morin JB, Slawinski J, Dorel S, de Villareal ES, Couturier A, Samozino P, Brughelli M, Rabita G (2015b) Acceleration capability in elite sprinters and ground impulse: push more, brake less? J Biomech 48(12):3149–3154. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Murphy AJ, Lockie RG, Coutts AJ (2003) Kinematic determinants of early acceleration in field sport athletes. J Sports Sci Med 2(4):144–150PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Nagahara R, Matsubayashi T, Matsuo A, Zushi K (2014a) Kinematics of transition during human accelerated sprinting. Biol Open 3(8):689–699. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Nagahara R, Naito H, Morin JB, Zushi K (2014b) Association of acceleration with spatiotemporal variables in maximal sprinting. Int J Sports Med 35(9):755–761. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Nagahara R, Mizutani M, Matsuo A, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T (2018a) Association of sprint performance with ground reaction forces during acceleration and maximal speed phases in a single sprint. J Appl Biomech 34(2):104–110. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Nagahara R, Takai Y, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T (2018b) Vertical impulse as a determinant of combination of step length and frequency during sprinting. Int J Sports Med. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Nummela A, Rusko H (1995) Time course of anaerobic and aerobic energy expenditure during short-term exhaustive running in athletes. Int J Sports Med 16(8):522–527. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Nummela A, Vuorimaa T, Rusko H (1992) Changes in force production, blood lactate and EMG activity in the 400-m sprint. J Sports Sci 10(3):217–228. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Nummela A, Keränen T, Mikkelsson LO (2007) Factors related to top running speed and economy. Int J Sports Med 28(8):655–661. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ohkuwa T, Saito M, Miyamura M (1984) Plasma LDH and CK activities after 400 m sprinting by well-trained sprint runners. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 52(3):296–299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Otsuka M, Kawahara T, Isaka T (2016) Acute response of well-trained sprinters to a 100-m race: higher sprinting velocity achieved with increased step rate compared with speed training. J Strength Cond Res 30(3):635–642. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rabita G, Dorel S, Slawinski J, Saez-de-Villarreal E, Couturier A, Samozino P, Morin JB (2015) Sprint mechanics in world-class athletes: a new insight into the limits of human locomotion. Scand J Med Sci Sports 25(5):583–594. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Roberts TJ, Scales JA (2002) Mechanical power output during running accelerations in wild turkeys. J Exp Biol 205(Pt 10):1485–1494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Roberts TJ, Marsh RL, Weyand PG, Taylor CR (1997) Muscular force in running turkeys: the economy of minimizing work. Science 275(5303):1113–1115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Samozino P, Rabita G, Dorel S, Slawinski J, Peyrot N, Saez de Villarreal E, Morin JB (2016) A simple method for measuring power, force, velocity properties, and mechanical effectiveness in sprint running. Scand J Med Sci Sports 26(6):648–658. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Seiler S, De Koning JJ, Foster C (2007) The fall and rise of the gender difference in elite anaerobic performance 1952–2006. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(3):534–540. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Slawinski J, Bonnefoy A, Levêque J-M, Ontanon G, Riquet A, Dumas R, Chèze L (2010) Kinematic and kinetic comparisons of elite and well-trained sprinters during sprint start. J Strength Cond Res 24(4):896–905. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Slawinski J, Termoz N, Rabita G, Guilhem G, Dorel S, Morin JB, Samozino P (2017) How 100-m event analyses improve our understanding of world-class men’s and women’s sprint performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports 27(1):45–54. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith GA (1992) Biomechanics of cross country skiing. In: Rusko H (ed) Handbook of sports medicine and science: cross country skiing. doi:
  104. Spencer MR, Gastin PB (2001) Energy system contribution during 200- to 1500-m running in highly trained athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33(1):157–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Stöggl TL, Holmberg HC (2016) Double-poling biomechanics of elite cross-country skiers: flat versus uphill terrain. Med Sci Sports Exerc 48(8):1580–1589. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Taylor MJ, Beneke R (2012) Spring mass characteristics of the fastest men on Earth. Int J Sports Med 33(8):667–670. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. van Ingen Schenau GJ, Cavanagh PR (1990) Power equations in endurance sports. J Biomech 23(9):865–881. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Walshe AD, Wilson GJ, Ettema GJC (1998) Stretch-shorten cycle compared with isometric preload: contributions to enhanced muscular performance. J Appl Physiol 84(1):97–106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Weyand P, Curcton K, Conley D, Sloniger M (1993) Percentage anaerobic energy utilized during track running events. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25(5):S105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Weyand PG, Cureton KJ, Conley DS, Sloniger MA, Liu YL (1994) Peak oxygen deficit predicts sprint and middle-distance track performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26(9):1174–1180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Weyand PG, Sternlight DB, Bellizzi MJ, Wright S (2000) Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements. J Appl Physiol 89(5):1991–1999. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Wiemann K, Tidow G (1995) Relative activity of hip and knee extensors in sprinting—implications for training. New Stud Athl 10(1):29–49Google Scholar
  113. Zouhal H, Jabbour G, Jacob C, Duvigneau D, Botcazou M, Ben Abderrahaman A, Prioux J, Moussa E (2010) Anaerobic and aerobic energy system contribution to 400-m flat and 400-m hurdles track running. J Strength Cond Res 24(9):2309–2315. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwegian Olympic FederationOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Centre for Elite Sports ResearchNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations