Advertisement

Acute effects of different set configurations during a strength-oriented resistance training session on barbell velocity and the force–velocity relationship in resistance-trained males and females

  • Alejandro TorrejónEmail author
  • Danica Janicijevic
  • Guy Gregory Haff
  • Amador García-Ramos
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study explored the acute effects of strength-oriented resistance training sessions performed using three different set configurations on barbell velocity and the force–velocity (F–v) relationship of upper-body muscles in men and women.

Method

Thirteen men (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; 6-repetition maximum [6RM] load: 73.4 ± 15.6 kg) and 13 women (age: 21.5 ± 1.4 years; 6RM load: 32.8 ± 5.2 kg) performed 24 repetitions with a 6RM load during the bench press exercise using traditional (TR: 6 sets of 4 repetitions with 3 min of rest between sets), cluster (CL: 6 sets of 4 repetitions with 15 s of intra-set rest every two repetitions and 2 min and 45 s of rest between sets) and inter-repetition rest (IRR: 1 set of 24 repetitions with 39 s of rest between repetitions) set configurations. The F–v relationship parameters [maximum force (F0), maximum velocity (v0) and maximum power (Pmax)] were determined before and after each training session.

Results

The average training velocity did not differ between the three set configurations (p = 0.234), but the IRR set configuration generally provided higher velocities during the last repetition of each set. Significant decreases in F0 (p = 0.001) and Pmax (p = 0.024) but not in v0 (p = 0.669) were observed after the training sessions. Comparable velocity loss was observed for men and women (− 12.1% vs. − 11.3%; p = 0.699).

Conclusions

The administration of very short intra-set rest periods does not allow for the attainment of higher velocities than traditional set configurations during strength-oriented resistance training sessions conducted with the bench press exercise when the work-to-rest ratio is equated.

Keywords

Strength training Cluster set Inter-repetition rest Velocity loss 

Abbreviations

TR

Traditional set configuration

CL

Cluster set configuration

IRR

Inter-repetition rest set configuration

1 RM

One repetition maximum

F–v

Force–velocity

F0

Maximal theoretical force

v0

Maximal theoretical velocity

Pmax

Maximal theoretical power

ES

Effect size

SD

Standard deviation

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all subjects that voluntary participated in this study.

Author contribution statement

AT, AGR and GGH conceived and designed research. AT and AGR collected data. AT, DJ, and AGR organized the database and performed the statistical analysis. AT and AGR wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read and approved the submitted version.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Bogdanis GC, Nevill ME, Lakomy HK, Boobis LH (1998) Power output and muscle metabolism during and following recovery from 10 and 20 s of maximal sprint exercise in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 163:261–272.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-201x.1998.00378.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chiu LZF, Fry AC, Weiss LW et al (2003) Postactivation potentiation response in athletic and recreationally trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 17:671–677.  https://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017%3c0671:PPRIAA%3e2.0.CO;2 Google Scholar
  3. Clark BC, Manini TM, The DJ et al (2003) Gender differences in skeletal muscle fatigability are related to contraction type and EMG spectral compression. J Appl Physiol 94:2263–2272.  https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00926.2002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davies RW, Carson BP, Jakeman PM (2018) Sex differences in the temporal recovery of neuromuscular function following resistance training in resistance trained men and women 18 to 35 years. Front Physiol 9:1480.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01480 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Filho JCJ, Gobbi LTB, Gurjao ALD et al (2013) Effect of different rest intervals, between sets, on muscle performance during leg press exercise, in trained older women. J Sports Sci Med 12:138–143 (In press) Google Scholar
  6. García-Ramos A, Jaric S (2018) Two-point method: a quick and fatigue-free procedure for assessment of muscle mechanical capacities and the one-repetition maximum. Strength Cond J 40:54–66.  https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000359 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. García-Ramos A, Padial P, Haff GG et al (2015) Effect of different interrepetition rest periods on barbell velocity loss during the ballistic bench press exercise. J Strength Cond Res 29:2388–2396.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000891 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. García-Ramos A, González-Hernández JM, Baños-Pelegrín E et al (2017) Mechanical and metabolic responses to traditional and cluster set configurations in the bench press exercise. J strength Cond Res.  https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002301 (In press) Google Scholar
  9. García-Ramos A, Torrejón A, Feriche B et al (2018a) Selective effects of different fatigue protocols on the function of upper body muscles assessed through the force–velocity relationship. Eur J Appl Physiol 118:439–447.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3786-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. García-Ramos A, Torrejón A, Feriche B et al (2018b) Prediction of the maximum number of repetitions and repetitions in reserve from barbell velocity. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 13:353–359.  https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Girman JC, Jones MT, Matthews TD, Wood RJ (2014) Acute effects of a cluster-set protocol on hormonal, metabolic and performance measures in resistance-trained males. Eur J Sport Sci 14:151–159.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.775351 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. González-Badillo JJ, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L et al (2014) Maximal intended velocity training induces greater gains in bench press performance than deliberately slower half-velocity training. Eur J Sport Sci 18:772–781.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.905987 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. González-Hernández J, García-Ramos A, Capelo-Ramírez F et al (2017) Mechanical, metabolic, and perceptual acute responses to different set configurations in full squat. J Strength Cond Res.  https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002117 (In press) Google Scholar
  14. Haff GG, Whitley A, McCoy LB et al (2003) Effects of different set configurations on barbell velocity and displacement during a clean pull. J Strength Cond Res 17:95–103.  https://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017%3c0095:EODSCO%3e2.0.CO;2 Google Scholar
  15. Haff GG, Hobbs RT, Haff EE et al (2008) Cluster training: a novel method for introducing training program variation. Strength Cond J. 30:67–76.  https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0b013e31816383e1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hansen KT, Cronin JB, Newton MJ (2011) The effect of cluster loading on force, velocity, and power during ballistic jump squat training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 6:455–468.  https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.6.4.455 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J (2009) Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:3–13.  https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Iglesias-Soler E, Carballeira E, Sánchez-Otero T et al (2012) Acute effects of distribution of rest between repetitions. Int J Sports Med 33:351–358.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1299699 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Iglesias-Soler E, Carballeira E, Sánchez-Otero T et al (2014) Performance of maximum number of repetitions with cluster-set configuration. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 9:637–642.  https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2013-0246 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jaric S (2015) Force-velocity relationship of muscles performing multi-joint maximum performance tasks. Int J Sports Med 36:699–704.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1547283 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Koefoed N, Lerche M, Jensen B et al (2018) Peak power output in loaded jump squat exercise is affected by set structure. Int J Exerc Sci 11:776–784Google Scholar
  22. Korak JA, Paquette MR, Fuller DK et al (2018) Effect of a rest-pause vs. traditional squat on electromyography and lifting volume in trained women. Eur J Appl Physiol 118:1309–1314.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-3863-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Marshall PWM, McEwen M, Robbins DW (2011) Strength and neuromuscular adaptation following one, four, and eight sets of high intensity resistance exercise in trained males. Eur J Appl Physiol 111:3007–3016.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-1944-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McGuigan MR, Wright GA, Fleck SJ (2012) Strength training for athletes: does it really help sports performance? Int J Sports Physiol Perform 7:2–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moreno SD, Brown LE, Coburn JW, Judelson DA (2014) Effect of cluster sets on plyometric jump power. J strength Cond Res 28:2424–2428.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000585 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oliver JM, Kreutzer A, Jenke S et al (2015) Acute response to cluster sets in trained and untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol 115:2383–2393.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3216-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Oliver JM, Jenke SC, Mata JD et al (2016) Acute effect of cluster and traditional set configurations on myokines associated with hypertrophy. Int J Sports Med 37:1019–1024.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-115031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pareja-Blanco F, Rodriguez-Rosell D, Sanchez-Medina L et al (2014) Effect of movement velocity during resistance training on neuromuscular performance. Int J Sports Med 35:916–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pareja-Blanco F, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L et al (2017) Effects of velocity loss during resistance training on athletic performance, strength gains and muscle adaptations. Scand J Med Sci Sport 27:724–735.  https://doi.org/10.1111/SMS.12678 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pestaña-Melero F, Haff GGG, Rojas FJF et al (2017) Reliability of the load-velocity relationship obtained through linear and polynomial regression models to predict the one-repetition maximum load. J Appl Biomech 34:184–190.  https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.2017-0266 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pincivero DM, Coelho AJ, Campy RM (2004) Gender differences in perceived exertion during fatiguing knee extensions. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:109–117.  https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000106183.23941.54 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rahmani A, Samozino P, Morin J-B, Morel B (2018) A Simple method for assessing upper-limb force–velocity profile in bench press. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 13:200–207.  https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0814 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Seitz LB, de Villarreal ES, Haff GG (2014) The temporal profile of postactivation potentiation is related to strength level. J strength Cond Res 28:706–715.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182a73ea3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Suchomel TJ, Nimphius S, Stone MH (2016) The importance of muscular strength in athletic performance. Sport Med 46:1419–1449.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0486-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Torrejon A, Balsalobre-Fernandez C, Haff GG, Garcia-Ramos A (2018) The load-velocity profile differs more between men and women than between individuals with different strength levels. Sport Biomech.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2018.1433872 Google Scholar
  36. Tufano JJ, Conlon JA, Nimphius S et al (2016) Maintenance of velocity and power with cluster sets during high-volume back squats. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 11:885–892.  https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tufano JJ, Brown LE, Haff GG (2017a) Theoretical and practical aspects of different cluster set structures: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31:848–867.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001581 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tufano JJ, Conlon JA, Nimphius S et al (2017b) Cluster sets: permitting greater mechanical stress without decreasing relative velocity. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 12:463–469.  https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0738 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tufano JJ, Conlon JA, Nimphius S et al (2017c) Different cluster sets result in similar metabolic, endocrine, and perceptual responses in trained men. J Strength Cond Res 33:346–354.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001898 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Winter DA (1990) Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 165–189Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Faculty of Sport and Physical EducationUniversity of Belgrade, The Research CentreBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Centre for Exercise and Sports Science ResearchEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Conditioning, Faculty of Education, CIEDECatholic University of Most Holy ConcepciónConcepciónChile

Personalised recommendations