Advertisement

Cross-education: effects of age on rapid and maximal voluntary contractile characteristics in males

  • Garrett M. Hester
  • Mitchel A. Magrini
  • Ryan J. Colquhoun
  • Alejandra Barrera-Curiel
  • Carlos A. Estrada
  • Alex A. Olmos
  • Alyssa R. Bailly
  • Phuong L. Ha
  • Jason M. DeFreitasEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age on the cross-education of rapid and maximal contractile properties for the knee extensors.

Methods

Young (n = 10; age = 21.1 ± 1.7 years) and older (n = 10; age = 65.3 ± 8.3 years) males performed unilateral isokinetic resistance training (RT) of the knee extensors for 4 weeks. Maximal voluntary isokinetic (45° s−1 and 300° s−1) and isometric testing was conducted for the trained and untrained leg before and after RT. Peak torque (PT) and acceleration were obtained from isokinetic testing as well as torque at 30 ms (TQ30) and 100 ms (TQ100) from the 45° s−1 contraction. PT and rate of torque development were recorded from the isometric contractions.

Results

Independent of age, isometric PT (10.1%; p = 0.006) as well as PT and acceleration at 300° s−1 (6.7%; p = 0.008 and 4.0%; p = 0.016, respectively) increased in the untrained leg. At 45° s−1, acceleration was increased (3.6%; p = 0.021), but PT remained unchanged (p = 0.227). TQ100 increased similarly between groups (4.5%; p = 0.014), but TQ30 increased only in the older group (9.5%; p = 0.022).

Conclusions

Cross-education of rapid and maximal contractile parameters can be achieved early during unilateral RT independent of age. These findings indicate the potential for particular unilateral RT protocols to be used for older adults in rehabilitative settings to offset disuse-related reductions in contractile function, which are most dramatic in this population.

Keywords

Resistance training Aging Rate of torque development Acceleration Knee extensors 

Abbreviations

ACC45

Acceleration at 45° s−1

ACC300

Acceleration at 300° s−1

CV

Coefficient of variation

ICC

Intraclass correlation coefficient

MVIC

Maximal voluntary isometric contraction

OM

Older males

PT45

Peak torque at 45° s−1

PT300

Peak torque at 300° s−1

RFD

Rate of force development

RT

Resistance training

RTD

Rate of torque development

SEM

Standard error of the measurement

TQ30

Torque at 30 ms

TQ100

Torque at 100 ms

YM

Young males

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Mr. Pope for his assistance with some aspects of the data collection.

Author contributions

GH and JD conceived and designed the research. GH, MM, RC, AB-C, CE collected the data. AO, AB, PH processed the data and assisted with analysis. GH conducted statistical analysis and prepared the manuscript. JD reviewed and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version.

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

References

  1. Aagaard P, Simonsen E, Trolle M, Bangsbo J, Klausen K (1996) Specificity of training velocity and training load on gains in isokinetic knee joint strength. Acta Physiol 156:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adamson M, MacQuaide N, Helgerud J, Hoff J, Kemi OJ (2008) Unilateral arm strength training improves contralateral peak force and rate of force development. Eur J Appl Physiol 103:553–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altubasi IM (2015) Is quadriceps muscle strength a determinant of the physical function of the elderly? J Phys Ther Sci 27:3035–3038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barry BK, Warman GE, Carson RG (2005) Age-related differences in rapid muscle activation after rate of force development training of the elbow flexors. Exp Brain Res 162:122–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bemben M, Murphy R (2001) Age related neural adaptation following short term resistance training in women. J Sports Med Phys Fit 41:291Google Scholar
  6. Bryanton M, Bilodeau M (2017) The role of thigh muscular efforts in limiting sit-to-stand capacity in healthy young and older adults. Aging Clin Exp Res 29:1211–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cannon J, Kay D, Tarpenning KM, Marino FE (2007) Comparative effects of resistance training on peak isometric torque, muscle hypertrophy, voluntary activation and surface EMG between young and elderly women. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 27:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Christie A, Kamen G (2010) Short-term training adaptations in maximal motor unit firing rates and after hyperpolarization duration. Muscle Nerve 41:651–660Google Scholar
  9. Clémençon M, Hautier CA, Rahmani A, Cornu C, Bonnefoy M (2008) Potential role of optimal velocity as a qualitative factor of physical functional performance in women aged 72 to 96 years. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 89:1594–1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collins BW, Lockyer EJ, Button DC (2017) Prescribing cross education of strength: is it time? Muscle Nerve 56:684–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coyle EF, Feiring D, Rotkis T, Cote R III, Roby F, Lee W, Wilmore J (1981) Specificity of power improvements through slow and fast isokinetic training. J Appl Physiol 51:1437–1442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deschenes MR, Holdren AN, Mccoy RW (2008) Adaptations to short-term muscle unloading in young and aged men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:856–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Devine KL, LeVeau BF, Yack HJ (1981) Electromyographic activity recorded from an unexercised muscle during maximal isometric exercise of the contralateral agonists and antagonists. Phys Ther 61:898–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ehsani F, Nodehi-Moghadam A, Ghandali H, Ahmadizade Z (2014) The comparison of cross-education effect in young and elderly females from unilateral training of the elbow flexors. Med J Islam Repub Iran 28:138Google Scholar
  15. Englund DA, Sharp RL, Selsby JT, Ganesan SS, Franke WD (2017) Resistance training performed at distinct angular velocities elicits velocity-specific alterations in muscle strength and mobility status in older adults. Exp Gerontol 91:51–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Farthing JP, Chilibeck PD (2003) The effect of eccentric training at different velocities on cross-education. Eur J Appl Physiol 89:570–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farthing JP, Zehr EP (2014) Restoring symmetry: clinical applications of cross-education. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 42:70–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fimland MS, Helgerud J, Solstad GM, Iversen VM, Leivseth G, Hoff J (2009) Neural adaptations underlying cross-education after unilateral strength training. Eur J Appl Physiol 107:723–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerstner GR, Thompson BJ, Rosenberg JG, Sobolewski EJ, Scharville MJ, Ryan ED (2017) Neural and muscular contributions to the age-related reductions in rapid strength. Med Sci Sports Exerc 49:1331–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hester GM et al (2019) Age does not attenuate maximal velocity adaptations in the ipsilateral and contralateral limbs during unilateral resistance training. J Aging Phys Act 27:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hortobágyi T, Lambert NJ, Hill JP (1997) Greater cross education following training with muscle lengthening than shortening. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29:107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hughes MA, Myers BS, Schenkman ML (1996) The role of strength in rising from a chair in the functionally impaired elderly. J Biomech 29:1509–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hvid L et al (2010) Effects of aging on muscle mechanical function and muscle fiber morphology during short-term immobilization and subsequent retraining. J Appl Physiol 109:1628–1634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kamen G, Knight CA (2004) Training-related adaptations in motor unit discharge rate in young and older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59:1334–1338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kanehisa H, Miyashita M (1983) Specificity of velocity in strength training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 52:104–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim C-Y, Lee J-S, Kim H-D, Kim J-S (2015) The effect of progressive task-oriented training on a supplementary tilt table on lower extremity muscle strength and gait recovery in patients with hemiplegic stroke. Gait Posture 41:425–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Klass M, Baudry S, Duchateau J (2008) Age-related decline in rate of torque development is accompanied by lower maximal motor unit discharge frequency during fast contractions. J Appl Physiol 104:739–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Knight C, Kamen G (2001) Adaptations in muscular activation of the knee extensor muscles with strength training in young and older adults. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 11:405–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kozicka I, Kostka T (2016) Handgrip strength, quadriceps muscle power, and optimal shortening velocity roles in maintaining functional abilities in older adults living in a long-term care home: a 1-year follow-up study. Clin Interv Aging 11:739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee M, Carroll TJ (2007) Cross education. Sports Med 37:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee M, Gandevia SC, Carroll TJ (2009) Unilateral strength training increases voluntary activation of the opposite untrained limb. Clin Neurophysiol 120:802–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lemmer JT et al (2000) Age and gender responses to strength training and detraining. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:1505–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lum PS, Patten C, Kothari D, Yap R (2004) Effects of velocity on maximal torque production in poststroke hemiparesis. Muscle Nerve 30:732–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Magnus CR, Arnold CM, Johnston G, Haas VD-B, Basran J, Krentz JR, Farthing JP (2013) Cross-education for improving strength and mobility after distal radius fractures: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 94:1247–1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Osawa Y, Studenski SA, Ferrucci L (2018) Knee extension rate of torque development and peak torque: associations with lower extremity function. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 9:530–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Petrella JK, Kim J-s, Tuggle SC, Hall SR, Bamman MM (2005) Age differences in knee extension power, contractile velocity, and fatigability. J Appl Physiol 98:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ploutz LL, Tesch PA, Biro RL, Dudley GA (1994) Effect of resistance training on muscle use during exercise. J Appl Physiol 76:1675–1681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Seger JY, Arvidsson B, Thorstensson A, Seger JY (1998) Specific effects of eccentric and concentric training on muscle strength and morphology in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 79:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shrout PE, Fleiss JL (1979) Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychol Bull 86:420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Thompson BJ, Ryan ED, Sobolewski EJ, Conchola EC, Cramer JT (2013) Age related differences in maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the leg extensors and flexors in young, middle-aged and old men. Exp Gerontol 48:277–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thompson BJ, Conchola EC, Palmer TB, Stock MS (2014) Effects of aging on maximal and rapid velocity capacities of the leg extensors. Exp Gerontol 58:128–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tillin NA, Folland JP (2014) Maximal and explosive strength training elicit distinct neuromuscular adaptations, specific to the training stimulus. Eur J Appl Physiol 114:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tillin NA, Pain MT, Folland JP (2012) Short-term training for explosive strength causes neural and mechanical adaptations. Exp Physiol 97:630–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tøien T, Unhjem R, Øren TS, Kvellestad ACG, Hoff J, Wang E (2018) Neural plasticity with age: Unilateral maximal strength training augments efferent neural drive to the contralateral limb in older adults. J Gerontol Ser A 73:596–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tracy B et al (1999) Muscle quality. II. Effects of strength training in 65- to 75-year-old men and women. J Appl Physiol 86:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Weir JP (2005) Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. J Strength Cond Res 19:231–240Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Garrett M. Hester
    • 1
  • Mitchel A. Magrini
    • 2
  • Ryan J. Colquhoun
    • 2
  • Alejandra Barrera-Curiel
    • 2
  • Carlos A. Estrada
    • 2
  • Alex A. Olmos
    • 1
  • Alyssa R. Bailly
    • 1
  • Phuong L. Ha
    • 1
  • Jason M. DeFreitas
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Exercise Science and Sport ManagementKennesaw State UniversityKennesawUSA
  2. 2.Applied Neuromuscular Physiology LaboratoryOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA

Personalised recommendations