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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 119, Issue 5, pp 1245–1252 | Cite as

Prediction of maximal oxygen consumption using the Young Men’s Christian Association-step test in Korean adults

  • On Lee
  • Sukho Lee
  • Minsoo Kang
  • Junbae Mun
  • Jinwook ChungEmail author
Original Article
  • 73 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

To develop accurate and practical prediction models of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) using the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA)-step test in South Korean adults.

Methods

In total, 568 adults (20–66 years) were included in this study. To develop and cross-validate prediction models of VO2max, the total sample was divided into 80% training and 20% testing using a simple random sampling method. VO2max was measured using the maximal-graded exercise treadmill test. Sex, age, 1-min recovery heart rate, body weight, and height were measured as potential predictors. Each test was conducted within a 2- to 3-day interval, ensuring sufficient rest. Preliminary prediction models were developed from training datasets, which were cross-validated using regression analyses and/or repeated-measures analysis of variance. The accuracy of prediction models was evaluated using R2, standard error of estimate (SEE), and mean difference (MD) against a criterion-measured VO2max.

Results

The average age and VO2max were 43.5 ± 12.9 years and 39.1 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min, respectively. For model development, three practical models with acceptable accuracy were developed (R2 = 0.56–0.61; SEE = 4.74–5.01). For model cross-validation, significant relationships between the criterion-measured and predicted VO2max were observed in all three models (R2 = 0.56–0.61; SEE = 4.62–4.88). The difference between criterion-measured and predicted VO2max was not significant in the models (MD =− 0.03 to − 0.14).

Conclusions

The prediction models included 3–5 variables as significant predictors of VO2max and had acceptable accuracy in a large sample of South Korean adults. The selected models provide a simple and practical method to estimate VO2max using the YMCA-step test for South Korean adults.

Keywords

VO2max Submaximal exercise tests Prediction model Cross-validation 

Abbreviations

CRF

Cardiorespiratory fitness

CHD

Coronary heart disease

MD

Mean difference

RHR

Recovery heart rate

SEE

Standard error of estimate

YMCA

Young Men’s Christian Association

Notes

Author contributions

OL was involved in participant recruitment, data collection, data reduction, statistical analysis and manuscript editing; SL, JM, and MK were involved in participant statistical analysis and manuscript editing; JC was involved in study design, statistical analysis, and manuscript editing. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript and agree with the order of presentation of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Korea Institute of Sport ScienceSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Counseling, Health, and Kinesiology, College of Education and Human DevelopmentTexas A&M University-San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  3. 3.Health, Exercise Science, and Recreation ManagementThe University of MississippiUniversityUSA
  4. 4.Department of Physical EducationKorea Military AcademySeoulSouth Korea
  5. 5.Sports Culture DepartmentDongguk UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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