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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 119, Issue 5, pp 1137–1148 | Cite as

Effects of exercise in normobaric hypoxia on hemodynamics during muscle metaboreflex activation in normoxia

  • Gabriele Mulliri
  • Gianmarco Sainas
  • Sara Magnani
  • Silvana Roberto
  • Giovanna Ghiani
  • Mauro Mannoni
  • Virginia Pinna
  • Sarah J. Willis
  • Grégoire P. Millet
  • Azzurra Doneddu
  • Antonio CrisafulliEmail author
Original Article
  • 76 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Little is known about the cardiovascular effects of the transition from exercise in hypoxia (EH) to normoxia. This investigation aimed to assess hemodynamics during the metaboreflex elicited in normoxia after EH.

Methods

Ten trained athletes (four females and six males, age 35.6 ± 8.4 years) completed a cardiopulmonary test to determine the workload at anaerobic threshold (AT). On separate days, participants performed three randomly assigned exercise sessions (10 min pedalling at 80% of AT): (1) one in normoxia (EN); (2) one in normobaric hypoxia with FiO2 15.5% (EH15.5%); and (3) one in normobaric hypoxia with FiO2 13.5% (EH13.5%). After each session, the following protocol was randomly assigned: either (1) post-exercise muscle ischemia after cycling for 3 min, to study the metaboreflex, or (2) a control exercise recovery (CER) session, without any metaboreflex stimulation.

Results

The main result were that both EH15.5% and EH13.5% impaired (p < 0.05) the ventricular filling rate response during the metaboreflex (− 18 ± 32 and − 20 ± 27 ml s−1), when compared to EN (+ 29 ± 32 ml s−1), thereby causing a reduction in stroke volume response (− 9.1 ± 3.2, − 10.6 ± 8.7, and + 5 ± 5.7 ml for EH15.5%, EH13.5% and EN test, respectively, p < 0.05). Moreover, systemic vascular resistance was increased after the EH15.5% and the EH13.5% in comparison with the EN test.

Conclusions

These data demonstrate that moderate exercise in hypoxia impairs the capacity to enhance venous return during the metaboreflex stimulated in normoxia. Overall, there is a functional shift from a flow to vasoconstriction-mediated mechanism for maintaining the target blood pressure during the metaboreflex.

Keywords

Cardiac pre-load Venous return Stroke volume Cardiac output Blood pressure 

Abbreviations

AT

Anaerobic threshold

CER

Control exercise recovery

CO

Cardiac output

COX

Cerebral tissue oxygenation

CPX

Cardiopulmonary test

DBP

Diastolic blood pressure

DT

Diastolic time

EH

Exercise in acute hypoxia

EN

Exercise in normoxia

HR

Heart rate

MAP

Mean blood pressure

NIRS

Near-infrared spectroscopy

NO

Nitric oxide

PEMI

Post-exercise muscle ischemia

PEP

Pre-ejection period

SBP

Systolic blood pressure

SNA

Sympathetic nervous activity

SO2

Peripheral blood O2 saturation

SV/VET

Stroke volume/ventricular ejection time ratio

SV

Stroke volume

SVR

Systemic vascular resistance

VER

Mean ventricular ejection rate

VET

Left ventricular ejection time

VFR

Ventricular filling rate

\(\dot{V}{\text{CO}}_{2}\)

Carbon dioxide production

\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2\max}}\)

Maximum oxygen uptake

Wmax

Maximum workload

Z0

Thoracic impedance

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the University of Cagliari and the Italian Ministry of Scientific Research.

Author contributions

GM, AD and AC: conceived and designed research, conducted experiments, analysed data, and wrote the manuscript. GS, SM, SR, GG, MM, and VP: conducted experiments and analysed data. SJW and GPM: conceived and designed research, analysed data, and wrote the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this manuscript.

Ethical approval

All the procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Cagliari.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriele Mulliri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gianmarco Sainas
    • 1
  • Sara Magnani
    • 1
  • Silvana Roberto
    • 1
  • Giovanna Ghiani
    • 1
  • Mauro Mannoni
    • 1
  • Virginia Pinna
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sarah J. Willis
    • 3
  • Grégoire P. Millet
    • 3
  • Azzurra Doneddu
    • 1
  • Antonio Crisafulli
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, Sports Physiology LabUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly
  2. 2.International PhD in Innovation Sciences and TechnologiesUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly
  3. 3.Institute of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Biology and MedicineUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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