Effects of chronic beetroot juice supplementation on maximum oxygen uptake, velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake, and peak velocity in recreational runners: a double-blinded, randomized and crossover study
This study investigated the effects of chronic 3-day beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), velocity associated with VO2max(vVO2max), and peak velocity (Vpeak) in recreational runners.
Thirteen male recreational runners (age 28.2 ± 3.0 years, height 176.8 ± 0.1 cm, body mass 74.4 ± 9.5 kg) performed four tests on a treadmill in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design: two maximum incremental tests to determine VO2max and vVO2max, and two tests to determine Vpeak. Trials were performed following 3 days of supplementation of NO3−-rich BRJ in natura (8.4 mmol NO3− day− 1) or BRJ NO3−-depleted placebo (0.01 mmol NO3− day− 1), with the last dose being ingested 2 h before each test. During the tests, maximum heart rate (HRmax), maximal rating of perceived exertion (RPEmax), pre- and post-test glucose concentrations (Glucpre, Glucpost), and peak blood lactate concentration were determined.
VO2max was higher following BRJ vs PLA (46.6 ± 6.4 vs 45.1 ± 5.8 mL kg− 1 min− 1; P = 0.022), as well as vVO2max (14.5 ± 0.8 vs 13.9 ± 1.0 km h− 1P = 0.024) and Vpeak (15.5 ± 1.1 vs 15.2 ± 1.2 km h− 1P = 0.038), with no differences in the other variables.
Consumption of NO3−-rich BRJ in natura (8.4 mmol NO3− day− 1) once per day for 3 days improved VO2max, vVO2max and Vpeak in recreational runners without changing the other analyzed variables.
KeywordsNitrate supplementation Nitric oxide Running Exercise nutritional science Physical endurance
Blood lactate concentration
Peak blood lactate concentration
Beetroot juice supplementation
Maximum heart rate
Nitric oxide synthase
Rating of perceived exertion
Maximal rating of perceived exertion
Regulatory protein sirtuin
Number of seconds required to complete a stage
Number of seconds sustained during the incomplete stage
Running velocity of the last complete stage
Maximum oxygen uptake
Velocity associated with VO2max
We would like to thank the participants for their time and effort in this study.
All authors of this research paper have directly participated in the planning, execution, writing and analysis of this study. All authors of this paper have read and approved the final version submitted.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bailey SJ, Winyard P, Vanhatalo A, Blackwell JR, DiMenna FJ, Wilkerson DP, Tarr J, Benjamin N, Jones AM (2009) Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 107:1144–1155. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00722.2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bailey SJ, Fulford J, Vanhatalo A, Winyard PG, Blackwell JR, DiMenna FJ, Wilkerson DP, Benjamin N, Jones AM (2010) Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 109:135–148. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00046.2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Balsalobre-Fernández C, Romero-Moraleda B, Cupeiro R, Peinado AB, Butragueño J, Benito PJ (2018) The effects of beetroot juice supplementation on exercise economy, rating of perceived exertion and running mechanics in elite distance runners: a double-blinded, randomized study. PloS one 13:e0200517. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200517 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Betteridge S, Bescós R, Martorell M, Pons A, Garnham AP, Stathis CC, McConell GK (2016) No effect of acute beetroot juice ingestion on oxygen consumption, glucose kinetics, or skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in males. J Appl Physiol 120:391–398. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00658.2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Borg GA (1982) Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14:377–381Google Scholar
- Buzzard M (1998) 24-hours dietary recall and food record methods. In: Willett WC Nutritional epidemiology, 2 edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 50–73Google Scholar
- Carriker CR, Vaughan RA, VanDusseldorp TA, Johnson KE, Beltz NM, McCormick JJ, Cole NH, Gibson AL (2016) Nitrate-containining beetroot juice reduces oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise in low but not high aerobically fit male runners. J Exerc Nutrition Biochem 20:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
- Denadai BS (1999) Índices fisiológicos de avaliação aeróbia: conceitos e aplicações, 4. BSD, Ribeirão PretoGoogle Scholar
- Domínguez R, Maté-Muñoz JL, Cuenca E, García-Fernández P, Mata-Ordoñez F, Lozano-Estevan MC, Veiga-Herreros P, da Silva SF, Garnacho-Castaño MV (2018) Effects of beetroot juice supplementation on intermittent high-intensity exercise efforts. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-017-0204-9 Google Scholar
- Ferguson SK, Holdsworth CT, Wright JL, Fees AJ, Allen JD, Jones AM, Musch TI, Poole DC (2015) Microvascular oxygen pressures in muscles comprised of different fiber types: impact of dietary nitrate supplementation. Nitric Oxide 48:38–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2014.09.157 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fernandes RJ, Billat VL, Cruz AC, Colaço PJ, Cardoso CS, Vilas-Boas JP (2006) Does net energy cost of swimming affect time to exhaustion at the individual’s maximal oxygen consumption velocity? J Sports Med Phys Fitness 46:373–380Google Scholar
- Gibson RS (1990) Principles of nutritional assessment. Oxford University Press. Food consumption of individuals, Oxford, pp 37–54Google Scholar
- Jonvik KL, Nyakayiru J, Van Dijk JW, Maase K, Ballak SB, Senden JMG, Verdijk LB (2018) Repeated-sprint performance and plasma responses following beetroot juice supplementation do not differ between recreational, competitive and elite sprint athletes. Eur J Sport Sci 18:524–533. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1433722 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lansley KE, Winyard PG, Fulford J, Vanhatalo A, Bailey SJ, Blackwell JR, DiMenna FJ, Gilchrist M, Benjamin N, Jones AM (2011a) Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study. J Appl Physiol 110:591–600. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01070.2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Larsen FJ, Weitzberg E, Lundberg JO, Ekblom B (2010) Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 48:342–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rowland TW (1996) Developmental exercise physiology. Human Kinetics Books, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
- Thompson C, Wylie LJ, Fulford J, Kelly J, Black MI, McDonagh ST, Jeukendrup AE, Vanhatalo A, Jones AM (2015) Dietary nitrate improves sprint performance and cognitive function during prolonged intermittent exercise. Eur J Appl Physio 115:1825–1834. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3166-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thompson C, Wylie LJ, Blackwell JR, Fulford J, Black MI, Kelly J, McDonagh ST, Carter J, Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, Jones AM (2017) Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on physiological and muscle metabolic adaptations to sprint interval training. J Appl Physiol 122:642–652. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00909.2016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tong L, Heim RA, Wu S (2011) Nitric oxide: a regulator of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinases. Free Radic Biol Med 50:1717–1725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.03.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vanhatalo A, Bailey SJ, Blackwell JR, DiMenna FJ, Pavey TG, Wilkerson DP, Benjamin N, Winyard PG, Jones AM (2010) Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise. AJP Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299:R1121–R1131. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00206.2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Whitfield J, Ludzki A, Heigenhauser GJF, Senden JM, Verdijk LB, van Loon LJ, Spriet LL, Holloway GP (2016) Beetroot juice supplementation reduces whole body oxygen consumption but does not improve indices of mitochondrial efficiency in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol 594:421–435. https://doi.org/10.1113/JP270844 CrossRefGoogle Scholar