Comparison between cuff-based and radial tonometry exercise-induced central blood pressure
Non-invasive central blood pressure assessed during exercise may provide better cardiovascular prognostic than measurements taken at rest. Radial tonometry is the only technique validated to perform this type of assessment; however, it relies on the experience of the tester. Cuff-based devices have been developed to avoid operator dependency, although these systems have yet to be validated during exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise-induced central blood pressure estimations between a cuff-based device and radial tonometry.
Twenty young healthy subjects were recruited to perform a three-workload steady-state exercise test at blood lactate levels of < 2, 2–4, and > 4 mmol/L, respectively. Central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (cSBP and cDBP, respectively), central pulse pressure (cPP), and augmentation index (AIx) were assessed at rest and during each workload with a cuff-based device and radial tonometry. Statistical analysis included Bland–Altman analysis for agreement between techniques. Agreement was considered when 95% of the data set for each central blood pressure parameter was within 1.96 standard deviations from the mean difference. Significance was considered at α = 0.05.
Central blood pressure measurements with the cuff device were obtained only at rest and during low-intensity exercise. During low-intensity exercise, all measurements showed agreement between both devices (cSBP 95% CI [− 6.0 to 10.7], cDBP 95% CI [− 4.5 to 6.3], cPP 95% CI [− 4.7 to 8.3], and AIx (95% CI [− 20.1 to 22.2]).
A cuff-based device can estimate central blood pressure at low-intensity exercise, without operator dependency, and showing agreement to radial tonometry.
KeywordsExercise-induced central blood pressure Pulse wave analysis Cuff-based device Radial tonometer
Analysis of variance
Central systolic blood pressure
Central diastolic blood pressure
Central pulse pressure
Pulse wave analysis
Rate of perceived exertion
FMA and ANG conceived and designed the research; FMA, BR, CH, and RP performed experiments; FMA analyzed data; FMA and ANG interpreted results of experiments; FMA prepared figures; FMA, BR, CH, EV, and SC drafted manuscript; FMA and ANG edited and revised manuscript. All authors approved final version of manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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