Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 119, Issue 2, pp 477–486 | Cite as

Energetics of male field-sport athletes during the 3-min all-out test for linear and shuttle-based running

  • Mark KramerEmail author
  • Rosa Du Randt
  • Mark Watson
  • Robert W. Pettitt
Original Article
  • 42 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

All-out, non-steady state running makes for difficult comparisons regarding linear and shuttle running; yet such differences remain an important distinction for field-based sports. The purpose of the study was to determine whether an energetic approach could be used to differentiate all-out linear from shuttle running.

Methods

Fifteen male field-sport athletes volunteered for the study (means ± SD): age, 21.53 ± 2.23 years; height, 1.78 ± 0.68 m; weight, 83.85 ± 11.73 kg. Athletes completed a graded exercise test, a 3-min linear all-out test and two all-out shuttle tests of varied distances (25 m and 50 m shuttles).

Results

Significant differences between the all-out tests were found for critical speed (CS) [F(8.97), p < 0.001), D′ (finite capacity for running speeds exceeding critical speed) [F(7.83), p = 0.001], total distance covered [F(85.31), p < 0.001], peak energetic cost (\({{\rm EC}}\)) [F(45.60), p < 0.001], peak metabolic power (\(\dot {P}\)) [F(23.36), p < 0.001], average \({\text{EC}}\) [F(548.74), p < 0.001], maximal speed [F(22.87), p < 0.001] and fatigue index [F(3.93), p = 0.027]. Non-significant differences were evident for average \(\dot {P}\) [F(2.47), p = 0.097], total \({\text{EC}}\) [F(0.86), p = 0.416] and total \(\dot {P}\) [F(2.11), p = 0.134].

Conclusions

The energetic approach provides insights into performance characteristics that differentiate linear from shuttle running, yet surprising similarities between tests were evident. Key parameters from all-out linear and shuttle running appear to be partly interchangeable between tests, indicating that the final choice between linear and shuttle testing should be based on the requirements of the sport.

Keywords

Aerobic fitness All-out test Energetics Field testing Shuttle running 

Abbreviations

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

AOT

All-out test

\({\text{C}}{{\text{O}}_2}\)

Carbon dioxide

\({\text{CS}}\)

Critical speed

\({\text{C}}{{\text{S}}_{25\,{\text{m}}}}\)

Critical speed derived from an all-out shuttle test of 25 m

\({\text{C}}{{\text{S}}_{50\,{\text{m}}}}\)

Critical speed derived from an all-out shuttle test of 50 m

\({\text{C}}{{\text{S}}_{{\text{linear}}}}\)

Critical speed derived from a linear all-out test (i.e. around a sprint track)

\(D^{\prime}\)

Maximal distance achievable at speed exceeding CS

\({\text{EC}}\)

Energetic cost

\({\text{ED}}\)

Equivalent distance

\({\text{ES}}\)

Equivalent slope

\({\text{EM}}\)

Equivalent mass

\(g\)

Gravitational acceleration

\({\text{GXT}}\)

Graded exercise test

\({{\text{H}}^+}\)

Hydrogen ion

\({{\text{O}}_2}\)

Oxygen

\(\dot {P}\)

Metabolic power

\({P_{\text{i}}}\)

Inorganic phosphate

\({S_{{\text{avg}}}}\)

Average speed attained

\({S_{{\text{max}}}}\)

Maximal speed attained during all-out running

\(\dot {V}{{\text{O}}_{2{\text{max}}}}\)

Maximal oxygen uptake

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank all participants who took part in this study, specifically the coaches Wayne Iveson, Andre Goosen and Jayde Howitz for allowing us access to their players. The results of the study are presented clearly, honestly and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation.

Author contributions

MK and RWP conceived and designed research. MK conducted experiments. MK and RWP analysed data. MK, RWP, RDR and MW wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest. No financial support was received.

Supplementary material

421_2018_4047_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 13 KB)

References

  1. Allen DG, Lamb GD, Westerblad H (2008) Skeletal muscle fatigue: cellular mechanisms. Physiol Rev 88(1):287–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almodhy M, Beneke R, Cardoso F, Taylor MJD, Sandercock GRH (2014) Pilot investigation of the oxygen demands and metabolic cost of incremental shuttle walking and treadmill walking in patients with cardiovascular disease. BMJ Open 4:e005216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Broxterman RM, Ade CJ, Poole DC, Harms CA, Barstow TJ (2013) A single test for the determination of parameters of the speed–time relationship for running. Resp Physiol Neurobiol 185(2):380–385 (PMID: 22981969) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buchheit M, Bishop D, Haydar B, Nakamura FY, Ahmaidi S (2010) Physiological responses to shuttle repeated sprint running. Int J Sports Med 31:402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buchheit M, Haydar B, Hader K, Ufland P, Ahmaidi S (2011) Assessing running economy during field running with changes of direction: application to 20 m shuttle runs. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 6(3):380–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buchheit M, Manouvrier C, Cassirame J, Morin JB (2015) Monitoring locomotor load in soccer: is metabolic power, powerful? Int J Sports Med 36:1149–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buglione A, di Prampero PE (2013) The energy cost of shuttle running. Eur J Appl Physiol 113:1535–1543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bundle MW, Weyand PG (2012) Sprint exercise performance: does metabolic power matter? Exerc Sport Sci Rev 40(3):174–182Google Scholar
  9. Bundle MW, Hoyt RW, Weyand PG (2003) High-speed running performance: a new approach to assessment and prediction. J Appl Physiol 95:1955–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burnley M, Vanhatalo A, Fulford J, Jones AM (2010) Similar metabolic perturbations during all-out and constant force exhaustive exercise in humans: a (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Exp Physiol 95(7):798–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chidnok W, DiMenna FJ, Fulford J, Bailey SJ, Skiba PF, Vanhatalo A, Jones AM (2013) Muscle metabolic responses during high-intensity intermittent exercise measured by 31P-MRS: relationship to the critical power concept. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 305:R1085–R1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coutts AJ, Kempton T, Sullivan C, Bilsborough J, Cordy J, Rampinini E (2015) Metabolic power and energetic costs of professional Australian football match-play. J Sci Med Sport 18(2):219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cummings C, Gray A, Shorter K, Halaki M, Orr R (2016) Energetic and metabolic power demands of national rugby league match-play. Int J Sports Med 37(7):552–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. di Prampero PE, Botter A, Osgnach C (2015) The energy cost of sprint running and the role of metabolic power in setting top performances. Eur J Appl Physiol 115:451–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dittrich N, de Lucas RD, Maioral MF, Diefenthaele F, Guglielmo LG (2013) Continuous and intermittent running to exhaustion at maximal lactate steady state: neuromuscular, biochemical and endocrinal responses. J Sci Med Sport 16(6):545–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Funk C, Clark A Jr, Connett RJ (1989) How phosphocreatine buffers cyclic changes in ATP demand in working muscle. Adv Exp Med Biol 248:687–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hatamoto Y, Yamada Y, Fuii T, Higaki Y, Kiyonaga A, Tanaka A (2013) A novel method for calculating the energy cost of turning during running. Open Access J Sports Med 4:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J (2009) Progressive statistics for studies of sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41(1):3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones AM, Poole DC (2005) Oxygen uptake kinetics in sport, exercise and medicine. Taylor and Francis, New York, (PMC3880088) Google Scholar
  20. Jones AM, Vanhatalo A (2017) The ‘critical power’ concept: applications to sports performance with a focus on intermittent high-intensity exercise. Sports Med 47(1):S65–S78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kenney WL, Wilmore J, Costill D (2015) Physiology of sport and exercise, 6th edn. Human Kinetics, ChampaigneGoogle Scholar
  22. Kirkeberg JM, Dalleck LC, Kamphoff CS, Pettitt RW (2011) Validity of 3 protocols for verifying. Int J Sports Med 32:266–270 (PMID: 21271494) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kramer M, Clark IE, Jamnick N, Strom C, Pettitt RW (2018a) Normative data for critical speed and D’ for high-level male rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 32(3):783–789 (PMID: 28542091) Google Scholar
  24. Kramer M, Watson M, Du Randt R, Pettitt RW (2018b) Oxygen uptake kinetics and speed-time correlates of modified 3-minute all-out shuttle running in soccer players. PLoS One 13(8):e0201389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mattioni MF, Fontana FY, Pogliaghi S, Passfield L, Murias JM (2018) Critical power: how different protocols and models affect its determination. J Sci Med Sport 21(7):742–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mendez-Villnueva A, Hamer P, Bishop D (2008) Fatigue in repeated sprint exercise is related to muscle power factors and reduced neuromuscular activity. Eur J Appl Physiol 130:411–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Minetti A, Moia C, Roi GS, Susta D, Ferretti G (2002) Energy cost of walking and running at extreme uphill and downhill slopes. J Appl Physiol 93(3):1039–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Osgnach C, Poser S, Bernardini R, Rinaldo R, di Prampero PE (2010) Energy cost and metabolic power in elite soccer: a new match analysis approach. Med Sci Sports Exer 42(1):170–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pettitt RW, Jamnick N, Clark IE (2012) 3-min all-out exercise test for running. Int J Sports Med 33:426–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Poole DC, Burnley M, Vanhatalo A, Rossiter HB, Jones AM (2016) Critical power: an important fatigue threshold in exercise physiology. Med Sci Sport Exerc 48(11):2320–2334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Saari A, Dicks ND, Hartman ME, Pettitt RW (2017) Validation of the 3-min all-out exercise test for shuttle running prescription. J Strength Cond Res.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002120 Google Scholar
  32. Sahlin K (1992) Metabolic factors in fatigue. Sports Med 13:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stevens TGA, de Ruiter CJ, van Maurik D, van Lierop CJW, Savelsbergh GJP, Beek PJ (2015) Measured and estimated energy cost of constant and shuttle running in soccer players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 47(6):1219–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tam E, Rossi H, Moia C, Berardelli C, Rosa G, Capelli C, Ferretti G (2012) Energetics of running in top-level marathon runners from Kenya. Eur J Appl Physiol 112:3797–3806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vanhatalo A, Poole DC, DiMenna FJ, Bailey SJ, Jones AM (2011) Muscle fiber recruitment and the slow component of uptake: constant work rate vs. all-out sprint exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integ Comp Physiol 300:R700–R707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Weyand PG, Bundle MW (2005) Energetics of high-speed running: integrating classical theory and contemporary observations. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Physiol 288:R956–R965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Winter DA (2009) Biomechanics and motor control of human movement, 4th edn. Wiley, New JerseyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zamparo P, Zadro I, Lazzer S, Beato M, Sepulcri L (2014) Energetics of shuttle runs: the effects of distance and change of direction. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 9:1033–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human Movement Science DepartmentNelson Mandela UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa
  2. 2.Psychology DepartmentNelson Mandela UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa
  3. 3.Rocky Mountain University of Health ProfessionsProvoUSA

Personalised recommendations