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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 119, Issue 1, pp 191–200 | Cite as

Effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on locomotor muscle oxygenation in elite speed skaters during 3000 m time trials

  • Philippe Richard
  • François BillautEmail author
Original Article
  • 134 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

It has been shown that an inspiratory muscle warm-up (IMW) could enhance performance. IMW may also improve the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI) during cycling. However, there exists contradictory data about the effect of this conditioning strategy on performance and muscle oxygenation. We examined the effect of IMW on speed skating performance and studied the underpinning physiological mechanisms related to muscle oxygenation.

Methods

In a crossover, randomized, single-blind study, eight elite speed skaters performed 3000 m on-ice time trials, preceded by either IMW (2 × 30 breaths, 40% maximal inspiratory pressure) or SHAM (2 × 30 breaths, 15% maximal inspiratory pressure). Changes in TSI, oxyhemoglobin–oxymyoglobin ([O2HbMb]), deoxyhemoglobin–deoxymyoglobin ([HHbMb]), total hemoglobin–myoglobin ([THbMb]) and HHbMbdiff ([O2HbMb]–[HHbMb]) in the right vastus lateralis muscle were monitored by NIRS. All variables were compared at different time points of the race simulation with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Differences between IMW and SHAM were also analyzed using Cohen’s effect size (ES) ± 90% confidence limits, and magnitude-based inferences.

Results

Compared with SHAM, IMW had no clear impact on skating time (IMW 262.88 ± 17.62 s vs. SHAM 264.05 ± 21.12 s, effect size (ES) 0.05; 90% confidence limits, − 0.22, 0.32, p = 0.7366), TSI, HbMbdiff, [THbMb], [O2HbMb] and perceptual responses.

Conclusions

IMW did not modify skating time during a 3000 m time trial in speed skaters, in the conditions of our study. The unchanged [THbMb] and TSI demonstrate that the mechanisms by which IMW could possibly exert an effect on performance were unaffected by this intervention.

Keywords

Elite athletes Long-track speed skating Muscle deoxygenation Blood volume Metaboreflex 

Abbreviations

ES

Effect size

HbMbdiff

Difference between O2HbMb and HHbMb

HHbMb

Deoxyhemoglobin + deoxymyoglobin

IM

Inspiratory muscle

IMT

Inspiratory muscle training

IMW

Inspiratory muscle warm-up

MIP

Inspiratory muscle pressure

NIRS

Near-infrared spectroscopy

O2HbMb

Oxyhemoglobin + oxymyoglobin

RPB

Rating of perceived breathlessness

RPE

Rating of perceived exertion

SD

Standard deviation

SHAM

Placebo intervention

THbMb

Total hemoglobin + total myoglobin

TSI

Tissue saturation index

\(\dot {V}{{\text{O}}_{2\hbox{max} }}\)

Maximal oxygen consumption

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the athletes and coaches involved in this study.

Author contributions

PR and FB conceived and designed the research. PR conducted the experiments, collected and analyzed the data. PR and FB interpreted the results. PR drafted the manuscript, and both PR and FB edited and revised the manuscript for approval of the final version.

Funding

This study was not funded by any grant.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The student researcher was employed (strength and conditioning coach) by the group involved in this study. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. On behalf of all the authors, the corresponding author states that there is no financial or non-financial conflict of interest associated with the current research.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Département de kinésiologieUniversité LavalQuebecCanada

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