Whole body cryotherapy, cold water immersion, or a placebo following resistance exercise: a case of mind over matter?
The use of cryotherapy as a recovery intervention is prevalent amongst athletes. Performance of high volume, heavy load resistance exercise is known to result in disturbances of muscle function, perceptual responses and blood borne parameters. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of cold water immersion (CWI), whole body cryotherapy (WBC) or a placebo (PL) intervention on markers of recovery following an acute resistance training session.
24 resistance trained males were matched into a CWI (10 min at 10 °C), WBC (3- and 4 min at − 85 °C) or PL group before completing a lower body resistance training session. Perceptions of soreness and training stress, markers of muscle function, inflammation and efflux of intracellular proteins were assessed before, and up to 72 h post exercise.
The training session resulted in increased soreness, disturbances of muscle function, and increased inflammation and efflux of intracellular proteins. Although WBC attenuated soreness at 24 h, and positively influenced peak force at 48 h compared to CWI and PL, many of the remaining outcomes were trivial, unclear or favoured the PL condition. With the exception of CRP at 24 h, neither cryotherapy intervention attenuated the inflammatory response compared to PL.
There was some evidence to suggest that WBC is more effective than CWI at attenuating select perceptual and functional responses following resistance training. However, neither cryotherapy intervention was more effective than the placebo treatment at accelerating recovery. The implications of these findings should be carefully considered by individuals employing cryotherapy as a recovery strategy following heavy load resistance training.
KeywordsMuscle damage Muscle function Inflammation Resistance training
Counter movement jump
Cold water immersion
Daily analysis of the lifestyle demands of athletes
Dual X-say absorptiometry
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Maximal voluntary isometric contraction
Rate of force development
Reactive strength index
Tumour necrosis factor-α
Whole body cryotherapy
LW, EC and LD conceived and designed research. LW, EC and LD conducted experiments. LW, EC, FH and MG analysed data. LW wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
No external funding was received for this work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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