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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 118, Issue 8, pp 1547–1553 | Cite as

Characteristics of patients with a relatively greater minimum VE/VCO2 against peak VO2% and impaired exercise tolerance

  • Taisuke Nakade
  • Hitoshi Adachi
  • Makoto Murata
  • Shigeru Oshima
Original Article
  • 57 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is used to evaluate functional capacity and assess prognosis in cardiac patients. Ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2) reflects ventilation–perfusion mismatch; the minimum VE/VCO2 value (minVE/VCO2) is representative of pulmonary arterial blood flow in individuals without pulmonary disease. Usually, minVE/VCO2 has a strong relationship with the peak oxygen uptake (VO2), but dissociation can occur. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between minVE/VCO2 and predicted peak VO2 (peak VO2%) and evaluated the parameters associated with a discrepancy between these two parameters.

Methods

A total of 289 Japanese patients underwent CPX using a cycle ergometer with ramp protocols between 2013 and 2014. Among these, 174 patients with a peak VO2% lower than 70% were enrolled. Patients were divided into groups based on their minVE/VCO2 [Low group: minVE/VCO2 < mean − SD (38.8–5.6); High group: minVE/VCO2 > mean + SD (38.8 + 5.6)]. The characteristics and cardiac function at rest, evaluated using echocardiography, were compared between groups.

Results

The High group had a significantly lower ejection fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac output, and higher brain natriuretic peptide, tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient, right ventricular systolic pressure, and peak early diastolic LV filling velocity/peak atrial filling velocity ratio compared with the Low group (p’s < 0.01). In addition, the Low group had a significantly higher prevalence of pleural effusion than did the High group (26 vs 11%, p < 0.01).

Conclusions

Patients with a relatively greater minVE/VCO2 in comparison with peak VO2 had impaired cardiac output as well as restricted pulmonary blood flow increase during exercise, partly due to accumulated pleural effusion.

Keywords

Peak VO2 min VE/VCO2 Cardiopulmonary exercise test Cardiac output 

Abbreviations

ACE/ARB

Angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blockers

AT

Anaerobic threshold

BFM

Body fat mass

BMI

Body mass index

BNP

Brain natriuretic peptide

CPX

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing

DcT

Deceleration time

E

Early diastolic mitral annular motion at the septum

E/E

Ratio of E to E

IVC

Inferior vena cava

LVEF

Left ventricular ejection fraction

mRAP

Mean right atrial pressure

minVE/VCO2

Minimum ventilatory efficiency

RCP

Respiratory compensation point

RVSP

Right ventricular systolic pressure

SD

Standard deviation

Vd/Vt

Dead-space gas volume to tidal gas volume ratio

VE/VCO2

Ventilatory efficiency

VO2%

Oxygen uptake

Notes

Author contributions

TN, HA and MM conceived and designed the study. TN, MM and SO extracted and analysed the data. TN and HA drafted the manuscript, and reviewed and revised the manuscript. TN: Taisuke Nakade, HA: Hitoshi Adachi, MM: Makoto Murata, SO: Shigeru Oshima.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of CardiologyGunma Prefectural Cardiovascular CenterMaebashiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Graduate School of MedicineGunma University School of MedicineMaebashiJapan

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