Effect of nicotine on repeated bouts of anaerobic exercise in nicotine naïve individuals
- 424 Downloads
Nicotine is a psychostimulant that is reported to be commonly supplemented by athletes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of a rapidly absorbed form of nicotine on repeated bouts of anaerobic exercise, perception of exertion and a range of cardiovascular variables while monitoring side effect profiles.
Sixteen healthy, nicotine naïve male athletes (24.1 ± 5.3 years, 179.0 ± 8.8 cm, 81.7 ± 13.5 kg, BMI 25.5 ± 3.0, Body fat% 13.2 ± 5.1%) completed two repeated 30 s Wingate tests with 3 min rest between bouts following consumption of either a 5-mg oral-dispersible nicotine strip (NIC) or a flavour-matched placebo (PLA) in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over design. Before the Wingate test, resting heart rate and blood pressure were also measured prior to and following PLA and NIC ingestion.
Peak and average power output were significantly greater following NIC administration compared to PLA (P < 0.01). Similarly, significant increases were also seen in heart rate and blood pressure following NIC administration compared to PLA (P < 0.01). No significant effect on pre-exercise side effect score, reaction time, rate of perceived exertion or post exercise blood lactate levels were observed (P > 0.05).
It was concluded that oral-dispersible nicotine strips increase repeated anaerobic performance, possibly through strong sympathetic stimulation, as evident by significant elevation of cardiovascular parameters.
KeywordsNicotine Supplement Ergogenic aid Sports doping Anaerobic exercise
Analysis of variance
Body mass index
Diastolic blood pressure
Intra-class correlation coefficient
Rating of perceived exertion
Systolic blood pressure
Saturated oxygen percentage
World Anti-Doping Agency
RJ and MC conceived the research and all authors designed the research. RJ and KD conducted the experiments. RJ, MC and KD analysed the data. RJ wrote the manuscript. All authors read, edited and approved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all the authors, the corresponding author states there is no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional Human Research Ethics Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- Du D, Nides M, Borders J, Selmani A, Waverczak W (2014) Comparison of nicotine oral soluble film and nicotine lozenge on efficacy in relief of smoking cue-provoked acute craving after a single dose of treatment in low dependence smokers. Psychopharmacol 231(22):4383–4391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-014-3586-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gierczuk D, Bujak Z (2014) Reliability and accuracy of Batak Lite tests used for assessing coordination motor abilities in wrestlers. Pol J Sport Tour 21:72–76Google Scholar
- medicines.org.au (2013) Product information. https://www.medicines.org.au. Accessed 10 May 2017
- Mündel T, Machal M, Cochrane DJ, Barnes MJ (2017) A randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study investigating the effects of nicotine gum on strength, power and anaerobic performance in nicotine-naive, active males. Sports Med Open 3(1):5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-016-0074-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pysný L, Petru D, Pysná J, Cihlár D (2015) The acute effect of nicotine intake on anaerobic exercise performance. J Phys Ed Sport 15(1):103Google Scholar
- Sinclair C, Geiger J (2000) Caffeine use in sports: a pharmacological review. J Sports Med Phys Fit 40(1):71–79Google Scholar