European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 117, Issue 8, pp 1669–1678 | Cite as

Effects of progressive resistance training and weight loss versus weight loss alone on inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers in older adults with type 2 diabetes

  • Eliza G. Miller
  • Parneet Sethi
  • Caryl A. Nowson
  • David W. Dunstan
  • Robin M. DalyEmail author
Original Article



Type 2 diabetes has been associated with an increase in inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers, which are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes-related complications. This study examined the effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (PRT) with moderate weight loss (WL) versus WL alone on inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers in older overweight adults with type 2 diabetes.


This was a 12-month randomized controlled trial in which 36 inactive, overweight adults aged 60–80 years with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes were randomized to 6 months of supervised PRT + WL or stretching (sham) exercise plus WL followed by 6 months of home-training without dietary modification. Fasted blood samples were collected at baseline and subsequent 3-month intervals with the following inflammatory [interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, adiponectin] and endothelial markers [resistin and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1)] assessed.


No significant within-group changes or between-group differences were detected for any inflammatory or endothelial biomarker following the 6-month supervised exercise and WL phase. There was a greater reduction in IL-10 at 9 months in the PRT + WL relative to WL group (P = 0.033). There was also a greater reduction in TNF-α at 9 and 12 months in the PRT + WL relative to WL group (P = 0.026 and P = 0.024, respectively). Serum adiponectin increased in the PRT + WL relative to WL group after 12 months (P = 0.036). All results were adjusted for baseline values, age, weight, sex, diabetes duration, medication use and any change in medication.


Long-term participation in PRT, independent of change in weight, can result in some improvements in certain inflammatory markers in older overweight adults with type 2 diabetes.


Resistance training Weight loss Type 2 diabetes Inflammation Older adults 



Glycated hemoglobin


High sensitive C-reactive protein






Tumor necrosis factor-alpha


Intercellular adhesion molecule-1


Progressive resistance training


Weight loss



Funds for the purchase of exercise equipment were kindly provided by the Rotary Club of Kew, Victoria, Australia and by Soroptimist International, Brighton Division. We wish to thanks all the volunteers whose cooperation and dedication made this study possible.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


This study was financially supported by a Grant from the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth) (Grant No. 98-0146).

Supplementary material

421_2017_3657_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Online Resource 1: Mean baseline values, absolute changes relative to baseline and the net between group differences for the change after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months for the various serum inflammatory markers, adiponectin and the endothelial markers resistin and ICAM-1 for the PRT + WL and WL groups. ‡ P<0.05 vs WL at baseline (DOCX 25 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eliza G. Miller
    • 1
  • Parneet Sethi
    • 2
  • Caryl A. Nowson
    • 1
  • David W. Dunstan
    • 2
    • 3
  • Robin M. Daly
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute for Physical Activity and NutritionDeakin UniversityGeelongAustralia
  2. 2.Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes InstituteMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Mary MacKillop Institute for Health ResearchAustralian Catholic UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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