The efficacy of periodised resistance training on neuromuscular adaptation in older adults
- 1.1k Downloads
This study compared the effect of periodised versus non-periodised (NP) resistance training on neuromuscular adaptions in older adults.
Forty-one apparently healthy untrained older adults (female = 21, male = 20; 70.9 ± 5.1 years; 166.3 ± 8.2 cm; 72.9 ± 13.4 kg) were recruited and randomly stratified to an NP, block periodised (BP), or daily undulating periodised (DUP) training group. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and following a 22-week resistance training intervention (3 day week−1), including: muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), vertical jump performance, isometric and isokinetic peak torque, isometric rate of force development (RFD), and muscle activation. Thirty-three participants satisfied all study requirements and were included in analyses (female = 17, male = 16; 71.3 ± 5.4 years; 166.3 ± 8.5 cm; 72.5 ± 13.7 kg).
Block periodisation, DUP, and NP resistance training induced statistically significant improvements in muscle CSA, vertical jump peak velocity, peak power and jump height, and peak isometric and isokinetic torque of the knee extensors at 60 and 180° s−1, with no between-group differences. Muscle activity and absolute RFD measures were statistically unchanged following resistance training across the entire cohort.
Periodised resistance training, specifically BP and DUP, and NP resistance training are equally effective for promoting increases in muscular hypertrophy, strength, and power among untrained older adults. Consequently, periodisation strategies are not essential for optimising neuromuscular adaptations during the initial stages of resistance training in the aging population.
KeywordsElderly Sarcopenia Health Adaptation Training model
One repetition maximum
Activities of daily living
Analysis of covariance
Analysis of variance
Body mass index
Daily undulating periodisation
Intraclass correlation coefficient
Maximal voluntary isometric contraction
Rate of force development
Root mean square
Weekly undulating periodisation
JAC is supported by a scholarship from the Collaborative Research Network in Exercise Medicine at Edith Cowan University. The authors wish to thank the many volunteers who participated in this Research Project.
- Bauer J, Biolo G, Cederholm T, Cesari M, Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Morley JE, Phillips S, Sieber C, Stehle P, Teta D (2013) Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE study group. J Am Med Dir Assoc 14:542–559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fleck SJ (1999) Periodized strength training: a critical review. J Strength Cond Res 13:82–89Google Scholar
- Freriks B, Hermens HJ (1999) SENIAM 9: European recommendations for surface electromyography. Roessingh Research and Development EnschedeGoogle Scholar
- Haff GG (2010) Quantifying workloads in resistance training: a brief review. UK Strength Cond Assoc 10:32Google Scholar
- Häkkinen K, Häkkinen A, Humphries BJ, Kraemer WJ, Newton RU, Gordon SE, McCormick M, Volek JS, Nindl BC, Gotshalk LA, Campbell WW, Evans WJ (1998a) Changes in muscle morphology, electromyographic activity, and force production characteristics during progressive strength training in young and older men. J Gerontol Biol Sci 53:B415–B423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jimenez A, Paz JDE (2011) Short-term effect of two resistance training periodization models (linear vs undulating) on strength and power of the lower-body in a group of elderly men. J Strength Cond Res 25:S20AGoogle Scholar