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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 117, Issue 6, pp 1181–1194 | Cite as

The efficacy of periodised resistance training on neuromuscular adaptation in older adults

  • Jenny A. ConlonEmail author
  • Robert U. Newton
  • James J. Tufano
  • Luis E. Peñailillo
  • Harry G. Banyard
  • Amanda J. Hopper
  • Ashley J. Ridge
  • G. Gregory Haff
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study compared the effect of periodised versus non-periodised (NP) resistance training on neuromuscular adaptions in older adults.

Methods

Forty-one apparently healthy untrained older adults (female = 21, male = 20; 70.9 ± 5.1 years; 166.3 ± 8.2 cm; 72.9 ± 13.4 kg) were recruited and randomly stratified to an NP, block periodised (BP), or daily undulating periodised (DUP) training group. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and following a 22-week resistance training intervention (3 day week−1), including: muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), vertical jump performance, isometric and isokinetic peak torque, isometric rate of force development (RFD), and muscle activation. Thirty-three participants satisfied all study requirements and were included in analyses (female = 17, male = 16; 71.3 ± 5.4 years; 166.3 ± 8.5 cm; 72.5 ± 13.7 kg).

Results

Block periodisation, DUP, and NP resistance training induced statistically significant improvements in muscle CSA, vertical jump peak velocity, peak power and jump height, and peak isometric and isokinetic torque of the knee extensors at 60 and 180° s−1, with no between-group differences. Muscle activity and absolute RFD measures were statistically unchanged following resistance training across the entire cohort.

Conclusions

Periodised resistance training, specifically BP and DUP, and NP resistance training are equally effective for promoting increases in muscular hypertrophy, strength, and power among untrained older adults. Consequently, periodisation strategies are not essential for optimising neuromuscular adaptations during the initial stages of resistance training in the aging population.

Keywords

Elderly Sarcopenia Health Adaptation Training model 

Abbreviations

1RM

One repetition maximum

ADL

Activities of daily living

ANCOVA

Analysis of covariance

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

BMI

Body mass index

BP

Block periodisation

CI

Confidence intervals

CMJ

Countermovement jump

CSA

Cross-sectional area

DUP

Daily undulating periodisation

EMG

Electromyography

ES

Effect size

ICC

Intraclass correlation coefficient

MVIC

Maximal voluntary isometric contraction

mRF

Rectus femoris

mVL

Vastus lateralis

NP

Non-periodised

RFD

Rate of force development

RM

Repetition maximum

RMS

Root mean square

SD

Standard deviation

WUP

Weekly undulating periodisation

Notes

Acknowledgements

JAC is supported by a scholarship from the Collaborative Research Network in Exercise Medicine at Edith Cowan University. The authors wish to thank the many volunteers who participated in this Research Project.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jenny A. Conlon
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Robert U. Newton
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • James J. Tufano
    • 1
    • 4
  • Luis E. Peñailillo
    • 5
  • Harry G. Banyard
    • 1
  • Amanda J. Hopper
    • 1
  • Ashley J. Ridge
    • 1
  • G. Gregory Haff
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Exercise and Sport Science ResearchEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  2. 2.Exercise Medicine Research InstituteEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  3. 3.Centre for Clinical ResearchUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Faculty of Physical Education and SportCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  5. 5.Faculty of MedicineUniversidad Finis TerraeSantiagoChile

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