European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 117, Issue 5, pp 921–929 | Cite as

Wearing graduated compression stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation in heat-stressed resting humans

  • Naoto Fujii
  • Toshiya Nikawa
  • Bun Tsuji
  • Narihiko Kondo
  • Glen P. Kenny
  • Takeshi Nishiyasu
Original Article



We investigated whether graduated compression induced by stockings enhances cutaneous vasodilation in passively heated resting humans.


Nine habitually active young men were heated at rest using water-perfusable suits, resulting in a 1.0 °C increase in body core temperature. Heating was repeated twice on separate occasions while wearing either (1) stockings that cause graduated compression (pressures of 26.4 ± 5.3, 17.5 ± 4.4, and 6.1 ± 2.0 mmHg at the ankle, calf, and thigh, respectively), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without causing compression (Control). Forearm vascular conductance during heating was evaluated by forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) divided by mean arterial pressure to estimate heat-induced cutaneous vasodilation. Body core (esophageal), skin, and mean body temperatures were measured continuously.


Compared to the Control, forearm vascular conductance during heating was higher with graduated compression stockings (e.g., 23.2 ± 5.5 vs. 28.6 ± 5.8 units at 45 min into heating, P = 0.001). In line with this, graduated compression stockings resulted in a greater sensitivity (27.5 ± 8.3 vs. 34.0 ± 9.4 units °C−1, P = 0.02) and peak level (25.5 ± 5.8 vs. 29.7 ± 5.8 units, P = 0.004) of cutaneous vasodilation as evaluated from the relationship between forearm vascular conductance with mean body temperature. In contrast, the mean body temperature threshold for increases in forearm vascular conductance did not differ between the Control and graduated compression stockings (36.5 ± 0.1 vs. 36.5 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.85).


Our results show that graduated compression associated with the use of stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation by modulating sensitivity and peak level of cutaneous vasodilation in relation to mean body temperature. However, the effect of these changes on whole-body heat loss remains unclear.


Central blood volume Thermoregulation Heat stroke Baroreceptors Compression garments 



This study was supported by the grants from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. We thank Takashi Miura of ALCARE Limited (Tokyo, Japan) for his support. We appreciate all volunteers for participating in this study. The current affiliation of N. Fujii is the University of Tsukuba, Institute of Health and Sport Sciences, Tsukuba City, Japan.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naoto Fujii
    • 1
    • 2
  • Toshiya Nikawa
    • 1
  • Bun Tsuji
    • 3
  • Narihiko Kondo
    • 4
  • Glen P. Kenny
    • 2
  • Takeshi Nishiyasu
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Health and Sport SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Human and Environmental Physiology Research UnitUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada
  3. 3.Faculty of Human Culture and SciencePrefectural University of HiroshimaHiroshimaJapan
  4. 4.Faculty of Human DevelopmentKobe UniversityKobeJapan

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