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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 117, Issue 4, pp 809–818 | Cite as

Biochemical responses and physical performance during high-intensity resistance circuit training in hypoxia and normoxia

  • Domingo J. Ramos-CampoEmail author
  • Jacobo A. Rubio-Arias
  • Stéphane Dufour
  • Linda Chung
  • Vicente Ávila-Gandía
  • Pedro E. Alcaraz
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of hypoxia on metabolic and acid–base balance, blood oxygenation, electrolyte, and half-squat performance variables during high-resistance circuit (HRC) training.

Methods

Twelve resistance-trained subjects participated in this study. After a 6RM testing session, participants performed three randomized trials of HRC: normoxia (NORM: FiO2 = 0.21), moderate hypoxia (MH: FiO2 = 0.16), or high hypoxia (HH: FiO2 = 0.13), separated by 72 h of recovery in normoxic conditions. HRC consisted of two blocks of three exercises (Block 1: bench press, deadlift and elbow flexion; Block 2: half-squat, triceps extension, and ankle extension). Each exercise was performed at 6RM. Rest periods lasted for 35 s between exercises, 3 min between sets, and 5 min between blocks. Peak and mean force and power were determined during half-squat. Metabolic, acid–base balance, blood oxygenation and electrolyte variables, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured following each block.

Results

During the first set, peak force and power were significantly lower in HH than MH and NORM; whereas in the second set, mean and peak force and power were significantly lower in HH than NORM. At the end of the HRC training session, blood lactate and RPE in HH were significantly higher than in MH and NORM. SaO2, pH, HCO3 , and pO2 values were significantly lower in all hypoxic conditions than in NORM.

Conclusion

These results indicate that simulated hypoxia during HRC exercise reduce blood oxygenation, pH, and HCO3 −, and increased blood lactate ultimately decreasing muscular performance.

Keywords

Hypoxic HRC Lactate Power Resistance training 

Abbreviations

ACSM

American college of sports medicine

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

Ca2+

Calcium

Cl

Chloride

cm

Centimeter

FiO2

Fraction of inspired oxygen

Glu

Glucose

H+

Hydrogen

HCO3

Bicarbonate

HH

High hypoxia

HRC

High-resistance circuit

K+

Potassium

l

Litre

m

Meter

MH

Moderate hypoxia

min

Minute

kg

Kilogram

Na+

Sodium

NORM

Normoxia

pCO2

Carbon dioxide partial pressure

PCr

Phosphocreatine

pO2

Oxygen partial pressure

RM

Maximum repetition

RPE

Rating of perceived exertion

RT

Resistance training

RTH

Resistance training under hypoxia

s

Second

SaO2

Arterial oxygen saturation

SPSS

Statistical package for the social sciences

W

Watt

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Arturo Camacho and Antonio Martínez-Garrido for their help during the testing sessions and all the athletes who participated in this study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Activity and Sport Science, Sport Science FacultyCatholic University of MurciaMurciaSpain
  2. 2.UCAM Research Center for High Performance SportMurciaSpain
  3. 3.Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of StrasbourgStrasbourgFrance
  4. 4.Department of PhysiologyCatholic University of MurciaMurciaSpain

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