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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 117, Issue 5, pp 853–866 | Cite as

Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover affects resistance training hypertrophy

  • Paul T. Reidy
  • Michael S. Borack
  • Melissa M. Markofski
  • Jared M. Dickinson
  • Christopher S. Fry
  • Rachel R. Deer
  • Elena Volpi
  • Blake B. RasmussenEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Acute bouts of resistance exercise and subsequent training alters protein turnover in skeletal muscle. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in basal post-absorptive protein turnover and its impact on muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise training are unknown. Our goal was to determine whether post-absorptive muscle protein turnover following 12 weeks of resistance exercise training (RET) plays a role in muscle hypertrophy. In addition, we were interested in determining potential molecular mechanisms responsible for altering post-training muscle protein turnover.

Methods

Healthy young men (n = 31) participated in supervised whole body progressive RET at 60–80% 1 repetition maximum (1-RM), 3 days/week for 3 months. Pre- and post-training vastus lateralis muscle biopsies and blood samples taken during an infusion of 13C6 and 15N phenylalanine and were used to assess skeletal muscle protein turnover in the post-absorptive state. Lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength (determined by dynamometry), vastus lateralis muscle thickness (MT), myofiber type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), and mRNA were assessed pre- and post-RET.

Results

RET increased strength (12–40%), LBM (~5%), MT (~15%) and myofiber CSA (~20%) (p < 0.05). Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) increased 24% while muscle protein breakdown (MPB) decreased 21%, respectively. These changes in protein turnover resulted in an improved net muscle protein balance in the basal state following RET. Further, the change in basal MPS is positively associated (r = 0.555, p = 0.003) with the change in muscle thickness.

Conclusion

Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover is associated with muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise training.

Keywords

Skeletal muscle Growth Strength training mTORC1 Ribosome biogenesis 

Abbreviations

α-Tub

Alpha-tubulin

4E-BP1

Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1

AA

Amino acids

FSR

Fractional synthesis rate

FBR

Fractional breakdown rate

ACTB

Beta-actin

Akt

Protein KINASE B

AA

Amino acids

ATG1

Autophagy related 1

B2M

Beta-2-microglobulin

Beclin-1

Beclin 1, autophagy related

BNIP3L

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3-like

BCAA

Branched chain amino acids

CDKN1A

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 A, aka (p21, Cip1)

CDK2

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2

DGKZ

Diacylglycerol kinase, zeta

EAA

Essential amino acids

eEF2

Eukaryotic elongation factor 2

FBX032

F-box only protein 32, aka MAFbx (muscle atrophy F-box protein and aka (Atrogin-1)

FBR

Fractional breakdown rate

FOXO3

Forkhead box O3

FSR

Fractional synthesis rate

GAPARAP

GABA(A) receptor-associated protein

GCMS

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

GSK

Glycogen synthase kinase

HSPA8

Heat shock 70 kDa protein 8

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor-1

ITS-CRC

Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center

LAMP1

Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1

LAMP2

Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2

LAMP3

Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3

LC3 α/β

Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha/beta

mib2

Mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2

MITF

Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor

MSTN

Myostatin

MTOR

Mechanistic target of rapamycin

mTORC1

Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1

MuRF-1

Muscle RING-finger protein-1

MyoD1

Myogenic differentiation 1

MyoG

Myogenin (myogenic factor 4)

p70S6K1

p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1

PAIP2B

Poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 2B

PIK3C3

Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, class 3 aka (hVps34)

pre-rRNA 45 S (ETS)

Preribosomal RNA 45 S (external transcribed spacers)

RET

Resistance exercise training

RPLP0

Large ribosomal protein

RPS6KB1

Ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70 kDa, polypeptide 1

S6-rpS6

Ribosomal protein S6

Ser

Serine

SLC38A9

Member 9 of the solute carrier family 38

TFE3

Transcription factor binding to IGHM enhancer 3

TFEB

Transcription factor EB

Thr

Threonine

TP53

Tumor protein P53

TTR

Tracer to tracee ratio

ULK1

Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1

URB2

URB2 ribosome biogenesis 2 homolog

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the clinical research staff of the Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center at UTMB for assisting in screening and consenting patients and participants and for assisting in data collection. We thank Syed Husaini, MD, for his assistance in subject recruitment, screening and performing muscle biopsies. We also thank, DPT Samantha Dillon, DPT Matthew Nguyen, SPT Benjamin Brightwell, Camille Brightwell and SPT Jennifer Thedinga for their assistance in supervising the exercise training of research participants. We also thank Dr. Marinel M. Ammenheuser for editing the manuscript.

Author contributions

BBR, PTR, and EV designed the research; PTR, MMM, MSB, JMD, CSF, and RRD conducted the research; BBR, EV, PTR, CSF, MMM, RRD, MSB and JMD, reviewed the manuscript; PTR, MSB, and BBR analyzed data; and PTR and BBR wrote the manuscript and had primary responsibility for final content.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

P.T. Reidy, M.S. Borack, M.M. Markofski, J.M. Dickinson, Fry, C.S. R.R. Deer, E. Volpi, B.B. Rasmussen have no conflicts of interest. The authors declare that this study was partially funded by DuPont Nutrition and Health. Representatives from DuPont Nutrition and Health were not involved with data collection and laboratory analysis.

Supplementary material

421_2017_3566_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1245 KB)
421_2017_3566_MOESM2_ESM.docx (172 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 173 KB)
421_2017_3566_MOESM3_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 20 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul T. Reidy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael S. Borack
    • 1
    • 2
  • Melissa M. Markofski
    • 3
  • Jared M. Dickinson
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christopher S. Fry
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rachel R. Deer
    • 3
  • Elena Volpi
    • 3
    • 4
  • Blake B. Rasmussen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Recovery, Physical Activity and NutritionUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, School of Health ProfessionsUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  3. 3.Sealy Center on AgingUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Internal Medicine/GeriatricsUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA

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