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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 117, Issue 3, pp 455–467 | Cite as

High-intensity aerobic interval training improves aerobic fitness and HbA1c among persons diagnosed with type 2 diabetes

  • Eva Maria StøaEmail author
  • Sondre Meling
  • Lill-Katrin Nyhus
  • Glenn Strømstad
  • Karl Magnus Mangerud
  • Jan Helgerud
  • Solfrid Bratland-Sanda
  • Øyvind Støren
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

It remains to be established how high-intensity aerobic interval training (HAIT) affects risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes (TD2). This study investigated effects of HAIT on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), glycated Hemoglobin type A1C (HbA1c), insulin resistance (IR), fat oxidation (FatOx), body weight (BW), percent body fat (%BF), lactate threshold (LT), blood pressure (BP), and blood lipid profile (BLP) among persons with T2D. Results were compared to the effects after a moderate-intensity training (MIT) program.

Methods

Thirty-eight individuals with T2D completed 12 weeks of supervised training. HAIT consisted of 4 × 4 min of walking or running uphill at 85–95% of maximal heart rate, and MIT consisted of continuous walking at 70–75% of maximal heart rate.

Results

A 21% increase in VO2max (from 25.6 to 30.9 ml kg−1 min−1, p < 0.001), and a reduction in HbA1c by −0.58% points (from 7.78 to 7.20%, p < 0.001) was found in HAIT. BW and body mass index (BMI) was reduced by 1.9% (p < 0.01). There was a tendency towards an improved FatOx at 60% VO2max (14%, p = 0.065). These improvements were significant different from MIT. Both HAIT and MIT increased velocity at LT, and reduced %BF, waist circumference, hip circumference, and BP, with no significant differences between the two groups. Correlations were found between change in VO2max and change in HbA1c when the two intervention groups were combined (R = −0.52, p < 0.01).

Conclusion

HAIT is an effective exercise strategy to improve aerobic fitness and reduce risk factors associated with T2D.

Keywords

Exercise intensity Interval training Maximal oxygen uptake HbA1c Fat oxidation 

Abbreviations

%BF

Percent body fat

BG

Blood glucose

BMI

Body mass index

BP

Blood pressure

BLP

Blood lipid profile

BW

Body weight

CHO

Carbohydrate

CRF

Cardiorespiratory fitness

CV

Coefficient of variance

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

FatOx

Fat oxidation

GI

Glycemic index

HAIT

High-intensity aerobic interval training

HbA1c

Glycated hemoglobin type A1C

HOMA-IR

Homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index

HRmax

Maximal heart rate

HRpeak

Peak heart rate

KCAL

Kilo calories

KJ

Kilo joules

[La]b

Blood lactate concentration

MIT

Moderate-intensity continuous training

POX

Protein oxidation

RER

Respiratory exchange ratio

T2D

Type 2 diabetes

TEI

Total energy intake

VCO2

Volume of carbon dioxide

VO2

Oxygen uptake

VO2max

Maximal oxygen uptake

Notes

Acknowledgements

We want to acknowledge the cooperation with Mid-Telemark Health Community (Midt-Telemarkraadet) in this project. A special thanks to Jørund Verpe for contributing in the planning phase of the study, Kristin Bøen and Ingunn Stavsholt for assisting in the recruitment face of the project as well as conducting motivational conversations with the participants, and Hans Torvild Kittilsen for assisting during exercise testing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.

Funding

No external funding was received from any organizations in this project.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eva Maria Støa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sondre Meling
    • 4
  • Lill-Katrin Nyhus
    • 1
  • Glenn Strømstad
    • 1
  • Karl Magnus Mangerud
    • 1
  • Jan Helgerud
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Solfrid Bratland-Sanda
    • 1
  • Øyvind Støren
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sports, Physical Education and Outdoor Life StudiesUniversity College of Southeast NorwayPorsgrunnNorway
  2. 2.Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of MedicineNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  3. 3.Hokksund Medical Rehabilitation CenterHokksundNorway
  4. 4.Department of EndocrinologyStavanger University Hospital, Former Hospital of TelemarkStavangerNorway

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